THE LANES ARMOURY INFORMATION PAGE. BRIGHTON GALLERY OPEN MON. TILL SAT. 11.00 AM TILL 5.00 PM
Probably the Worlds Largest Online Militaria Website
Including over 14,900 Full Page Photographs, that makes our website size to an incredible 15,000 pages of photographs and historical descriptive text including, approximately, 532,700 words, displaying amongst numerous other items, the worlds largest selection of original samurai edged weapons for sale outside of Japan.
For Bank Transfer Payments of purchases
Account of; Mark and David Hawkins
International transfer numbers;
We are not modern firearm dealers, we only sell original, antique, vintage [though fully functioning], or, government approved deactivated guns that are for collecting and historical display purposes only. Therefore, no licenses are required for any of the items we sell. None of our antique arms are for sale with the intention to be used. They are purely for display and collecting. Please see 'Notice regarding UK Gun Licences' below for further details.
Our newest shipping contract for sword deliveries to the US & Canada, to your door, are at around [or under] £100.
Gun Deliveries [pistols, muskets etc] outside of the UK are now having to be sent through uprated security channels which is more costly than the old system that we operated so the price has now increased to a £350 minimum as from September 2014 with client collection at the nearest International Airport
Many items are photographed in the gallery accompanied by period pictures or photographs to illustrate the items use for educational purposes. These pictures or photos are never included for sale with the item.
We Have Two Direct Lines at our store here in Brighton; 01273 321357 and 01273 771125 [International +441273 321357 +441273 771125]. Our store is closed on Sundays. However we also have a 24 hr line on 07721 010085 [or Int'l + 44 7721 010085] .
Although, by and far, the largest proportion of our clients, with an interest for our guns and weapons, are from all over the world, and may never visit us personally, we are always delighted to receive personal visits.
If you are a new visitor to our site, or have never been to our shop, we will be a completely new experience for you, and we are always here to help. If you have never heard of us, and need to know independently who we are, just Google us, The Lanes Armoury, and you will see we are a well established family business that values it's well earned reputation. We may not have what you are looking for, but no visitor to our shop has ever been less than amazed at our world beating selection and displays, we are always described as a museum more than a shop.
Even though we are simply a collector's shop, so many declare that we are their favourite shop in the country, that we have simply lost count. Out of an average of over 1000 visitors a day no one has ever said they were disappointed.
In the past we have appeared in many international newspapers and journals, and we quote one past article in the Glasgow Herald below. We have also been listed in the New York Times as one of the 100 places to visit in the UK and we, include an article that was published about us on City News Live here;
This is that article 'copied' below;
"With so many different histories to offer, you can feel freer in Brighton than in most British cities in order to select trips which coincide with your interests and of course, you're much more likely to find in Brighton things to do which bring the history you love to life. For the lover of militaria, a visit to The Lanes Armoury is a must, but with a difference. The Armoury's housed in a three-story 16th century building and is a real treasure trove it's a museum which is not a museum, as everything is for sale. It has been nominated and then short-listed for the British Antique & Collectors Awards as the best Antique Shop in Great Britain and is the latest incarnation of a much older business David Hawkins Brighton Ltd which was one of the earliest and largest British dealers in Antiques and Collectibles within the whole of Europe. It's their current specialization in Arms, Armour, Militaria, and Books which really marks them out, and creates such a fascinating and fantastic place to visit. From bronze-age swords, suits of armour, guns, revolvers, duelling pistols, American Civil war swords through to medals, thousands of military books, and also World War II weapons, it's all there to be viewed and drooled over. It's not a museum but when you leave, you've had the same experience!"
You will also find us listed on the official 'Visit Brighton' website* www.visitbrighton.com and we are listed as one of the 50 'must see' places any visitor to Brighton & Hove City ought to experience.
Brighton has for many decades been known as 'London-by-the-Sea', and as it is only 50 miles due south of London and within 40 miles of England's two largest airports [Heathrow and Gatwick] it is one of the most popular city tourist destinations in the whole of Europe. If you visit Brighton you will find that alongside the world class Royal Palace, the Brighton Pavilion, the Brighton Pier, Brighton Marina and Brighton Racecourse we are universally recommended as a truly amazing place to visit.
Even though we are not quite the biggest of the amazing Brighton attractions, many regular visitors tell us we're the best!
If on your visit you decide to purchase one or many of our items we will be delighted to provide our certificate of authenticity. A certificate will detail any provenance if known, however, detailed provenance is very rare and infrequently available. All visitors are welcome to ask opinions on items they have that we may be able to identify. This we will happily do, free of charge. However, please be aware, although we have traded for generations and personally in our business for many decades, there is no limit to the amount of items we haven't seen or never come across before, so sometimes we simply can't help through lack of specific knowledge in that area. PLEASE NOTE; We no longer send items that contain ivory, however old it might be, to the USA or Canada
Japanese Historical Weaponry
One of the most frequently asked questions that have been put to us, over the past 40 years, is, "how are these samurai blades still so beautiful, and in almost as new appearance condition, if they are really so ancient?". It some respects the answer is simple, and comes in two parts. The steel on original, antique, Japanese samurai swords, is, quite simply, way and above the finest steel in the world. Forged by a smith whose skill was unsurpassed throughout the world of blade making. A master smith who, through decades of training and experience, could tell the difference of, potentially, only 20 degrees, in the temperature of red/white hot steel, simply by it's variations in colour. And a man whose skill, over 500 years past, gave him the ability to make a piece of steel of better quality than anything NASA ever made in order to send a rocket to the moon. These skills were but the first part of the answer, the next, comes as the explanation as to why such steel lasts for hundreds of years looking as beautiful as when it was made. Respect and reverence, is the answer. Samurai swords have a respect within Japanese culture than has been undiminished for a thousand years. To a European, or those non Japanese culture, swords are respected as a tool, possibly a beautiful tool, or a fine and most valuable tool, but still a tool. An implement of protection and assault, possibly a badge of rank, but not as an artefact to be revered with an in-built religious status of honour. Every samurai owner of these swords, and there may have been 30 or 40 over the centuries, respected their sword with unfailing care and attention to it's condition, maintaining it every day, in a near religious act of attention to detail. An item far more valuable than their home, and worthy of the committing of ritual seppuku [suicide], if ever lost.
At present none of our swords have 'papers'.
99% of our antique swords came to the UK either in the 1870's or at the
close of WW2 in 1945/6. This was long before Japanese Sword 'Papers' [or
Nihonto Origami] were thought of, and therefore none of our swords have ever
returned to Japan for papering. Be aware though there are fake "official"
looking origami on the general market from fictitious Japanese organizations
which are being sold to make some swords appear legitimate and more
valuable. This is one of the reasons subjectively that we place little store
or interest in Nihonto Origami.
Very occasionally in the past we have had 'papered' swords though, but they
have been papered by previous collector owners in the past 50 years or so,
for personal reasons.
However, we issue our certificate of authenticity with every item we sell
which is our own version of a lifetime guarantee.
For those that may need better close up photos of blades, sadly our site is limited to 10 photos per sword, and we have a lot of detail to show on every Japanese sword, so some elements may be missed. But, if you require better photos please just email us and we will try our best to provide them for you.
Thanks to an extensive contact base [built up over the past 80 years or more] that stretches across the whole world, including collectors [both large and small], curators, academics and consultants, we have been very fortunate, that this effort has rewarded us with the ability to offer, what we believe to be, the most comprehensive selection available in Europe, based on their potential or sometimes known history due to their age and their beauty. Although we would never arrogantly credit ourselves to be experts on Japanese Nihonto, for, quite simply, some of the most learned scholars studying this art all theirs lives often only scratch the surface of the knowledge to be learnt in this field, we have always loved history of the Samurai and admired and envied their unparalleled beauty. We therefore stock all forms of Original Japanese Weaponry Arms and Armour, Antique Samurai Swords, Antique Samurai Wakizashi, Antique Samurai Tanto Daggers, Armour, Art etc, from all periods, and it will only be found in the 'Japanese' department in their relevant 'Select Department..'.section. The ages that these items were made or used in will be described in the recognized Japanese Era and Period Terms. If you are unfamiliar with these please see the Era and Period guide below or email us for details as required. Most WW2 Officers swords may be listed under 'Tachi' not 'Katana' as they were usually mounted in the ancient Tachi style. What generally differentiates the different swords is their length. Japanese swords are measured in units of shaku, a shaku being around 30cm or one foot). A blade shorter than 1 shaku is considered a tant? (knife). A blade longer than 1 shaku but less than 2 is considered a shot (short sword). The wakizashi and kodachi are in this category. Some long short swords can be considered a chisa-katana; the proportions are that of a katana, rather than a wakizashi, and it is between 1 and 2 shaku in length. Additionally, a chisa-katana did not have a companion sword. We feel that, if only out of respect for their previous Japanese owners, all samurai swords, however neglected or battle weary, certainly deserve to be cared for and preserved for posterity.
A blade longer than 2 shaku is considered a daito, or long sword. Before 1500 most swords were worn suspended from cords on a belt, blade-down. This style is called jindachi-zukuri, and dait? worn in this fashion are called tachi (average blade length of 75 cm). From 1500 1867, almost all swords were worn through an obi, paired with a smaller blade. Both blades were blade-up. This style is called buke-zukuri, and all dait? worn in this fashion are katana, averaging 65 cm in blade length. Dating of Japanese edged weaponry is done with great care, but it can on occasion be quite difficult as styles, forms and designs can vary very subtly, the eras that a blade is designated as being from is judged as most likely, by opinion, but it can be later or even earlier. The age of an edged weapon always relate to it's blade not the external fittings. In regards to some blade's Kanji [signatures]. Probably around 70% of blades were never signed by the sword smith [mumei], and those that are, may bear a name that is not necessarily the name of the smith himself [gimei]. If we have a sword that bears Kanji [a signature], and we feel that it is very likely to be accurate, we will clearly state it as such. Please further bear in mind, some sword smiths had a name that was also used by many different smiths, all with the same name [or variation thereof]. We do, on occasion, have the requirement for some Japanese blades to be re-polished. We do not have them polished 'traditional Edo style' in Japan, as the costs, time, and considerable risks involved [not to mention the punitive import duty costs, paid in the UK, for items returning from abroad] are far too great. We have them polished domestically, at far more reasonable cost, time, and risk.
VISITORS TO BRIGHTON & TO THE BRIGHTON MILITARY BOOK SHOP
Please note, we sell only original or collector's items, and our specialist military book section is simply huge and our best single and group item seller. We do not sell fantasy swords or weapons. Please ask for details for our consignment terms if required. All our guns are license free and sold under the auspices of; Section 58 (2) of the Firearms Act 1968 exempts from the provisions of the act-including certificate controls under sections 1 & 2 and prohibition under section 5-antique firearms which are sold, transferred, purchased, acquired or possessed as curiosities or ornaments.
TV and Documentary Appearances
We are often pleased to assist television companies with the personal assistance and or appearances from the partners Mark and David, but please be aware long term notice is usually most helpful due to the pressure of traveling commitments.
Old Swords, Japanese Swords, 1796 Swords, Samurai Swords and Books at The Lanes in Brighton
As you will see we are one of the foremost sources of collector's items, in the world of Antique Military Books, Swords and Militaria. You can regularly see our shop, and the partners, Mark & David, on the BBC and numerous other British TV and Satellite channels. We have appeared frequently in glossy magazines all over the world and our stock regularly features in dozens of Movies and even Computer Games. We sell online, and from our shop, Items from the Ancient and Antediluvian era, Swords, Antique Samurai Swords, Militaria, Samurai Wakazashi, American Swords, Sword Sticks & British Swords, we also stock Brown Bess Muskets, Light Cavalry Pistols, Baker Rifles, Martini Henry Rifles, Colt Revolvers, Remington Revolvers and Guns and Pistols of all eras including the American Civil War and other Wild West Pistols. We also sell Medals, Badges, thousands of Books, Helmets, German WW2 items, Russian weapons, Blunderbuss, Armour, Suits of Armour, Armour, both Japanese and European [however, these may be photographed on our website for sale with swords or pole arms, these are for display purposes only and not included with the Armour unless specified]. We sell Flags & Hire Deactivated Guns etc. [these factory made weapons may be displayed with generic photos]. Please contact us at The Armoury in Brighton [in The Lanes] or visit us personally. We are also very happy, when possible, to provide [for items purchased from the Lanes Armoury] translations of foreign inscriptions that may be on various guns and swords, however, they are third party interpretations of vintage text for information only, and we cannot be responsible for the accuracy of the translation or the text. If any errors are noticed in our descriptive text please let us know and we will be happy make any corrections as necessary. We also are pleased to upgrade any purchase at any time [with a minimum 50% value increase]. Signatures on Japanese blades will be described as 'signed', 'signed by' or 'by'. 'By' will mean there is little doubt it is by the named master smith, and may come with old Japanese papers to verify. 'Signed by' means very possibly or probably by the named master smith, 'Signed' means it bears the signature which may mean it is by the master, his school, or possibly another, such as pupil, but without any verification. 'Bears the name' means unlikely by the master, even though It bears his kanji [name]. Our lifetime guarantee for Japanese swords is based on beauty, quality and age, which in our opinion, are the foremost qualities of our swords, when placed in their historical context and their appearance.
GRENADES & ORDNANCE
All our grenades and ordnance are examples of previous wartime eras relics. They are completely empty, inoperable and purely harmless curiosities and keepsakes. We sell such items to historical collectors and ordnance museums only. They contain no harmful contents in any way and are for curiosity or historical purposes only. We do not sell or deliver such items outside of the UK.
Packing & Shipping
Our packing is undertaken with extreme care and fastidiousness, and all and every effort is made to ensure our excellent 'Safe Arrival' record remains unblemished. We use the best materials available and all packages are inspected twice, independently, before dispatch. However, this does mean delivery can take a little bit longer, but we feel safety and protection is paramount. With all pole staffs, flag poles and lances that go across the Atlantic by air, they have to be separated in to two pieces. This is perfectly normal and has been achieved with special dowel system that was developed for an American Museum. Once put together and wood glued, and the seam very simply coloured they will become invisible. It should take no longer than an hour in total.
They are seamed at an angle to make the join simpler, safer, stronger and more invisible.
If you require items urgently though please ask and every effort will be made to expedite sooner. If our European clients buy de-activated or antique arms from us it is the responsibility of the client to explore all local legislation as to import regulations, we cannot be responsible for any non UK regulations. We are very aware that mail order purchasers at our Brighton Lanes Gun shop and Sword shop [ The Lanes Armoury ] desire to get their purchases as soon as possible, but please be assured it is better to arrive safely than quickly.
Eras and Periods in Japanese and British Weapon Making History & Terminology
CHOKUTO or KEN up to 900 [Heian 749-1191 Kamakura 1192-1336],
KOTO 900 to 1595 [Nambokochu 1333 to 1391, Muramachi 1392-1573, Momayama 1574-1602]
SHINTO from 1596 to 1781 [Edo 1599 to 1867]
SHIN-SHINTO from 1781 to 1876
Modern era MEIJI, TAISHO, SHOWA [GENDAITO, SHOWATO,] from 1876 to Current day [SHINSHAKUTO]
Saya = Scabbard, Tsuka = Hilt, Nakago = Tang, Mekugi = Tang Peg, Same = Giant Ray Skin, Tsuba = Sword Guard, Hamon = Blade Temper Line, Shinken = Live Blade, Mumei = Unsigned by the Smith on the Tang, Gimei = Not the Blade Smith on the Tang, Kissaki = Blade End, Koshirae = Sword Furniture
ANGLO SAXON -NORMAN, 600 to 1154
MEDIAEVIL, 1066 to 1500 approx
...TUDOR [HenryVII to Elizabeth I] 1485-1603,
.. STUART [James I to Queen Anne] 1603-1714 [Interregnum 1649 to 1660],
William IIIrd 1689-1702, Queen Anne 1702-1714,
GEORGIAN [George I to William IV] 1714 to 1837,
VICTORIAN [Victoria] 1837 -1901,
EDWARDIAN [Edward VII] 1901-1910,
.George Vth 1910 to 1936, .. Edward VIIIth 1936,.. George VIth, 1936 to 1953,.. Elizabeth IInd 1953 to Current day.
UNSIGNED JAPANESE BLADES; Japanese smiths often did not like to display their name loudly. Some smiths put only their school's name, with no individual name. For example, such smiths as Ichimonji or Gassan, and of course some others. Their behaviour may indeed come from the principle of true modesty, it is effectively the opposite idea to egotism. In old Japanese, ego is a kind of dirt within the spirit.
In medieval Japan, when a smith makes a blade for his god or Buddha, he tries to make his best blade, but will not put his signature on the tang. He refrains from putting his signature on his representation of a holy piece, that he will offer in shrine or temple. When a smith received a command to make an order from a high class lord, he reacts the same way. It is in a manner that it is to respect the sword, but humbling the smith himself.
Originally unsigned blades of good quality could easily be made by these situations being prevalant.
It is said that the reason why most of Masamune blades are originally unsigned is he received his orders from the heads of samurai in Kamakura government.
Many of blades in Yamato province are originally unsigned as well. Most of them were made for the temples. There were several great temples in Yamato province then. Still today, Yamato province (Nara prefecture) is well known as a region of old temples
OUR ANNOUNCEMENTS, CONDITIONS, AND INFORMATION PAGE
NONE OF OUR ITEMS REQUIRE LICENCES OR ARE RESTRICTED TO OWN OR COLLECT. WE DO NOT SELL EDGED WEAPONRY OR ARMS TO ANY PERSON UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. Our website on Arms & Armour & Books is now updated with new additions [and deletions] every two hours. There are different forms of searches on our site, if you click 'other searches' you may also search by keyword/s or stock numbers. Then click 'category search' to return to normal. Every effort is made to be accurate in our stock descriptions, however, if you notice any errors or spelling mishaps please feel free to let us know and we will be pleased to rectify them. Some items of Military Kit, such as Military Cap Badges and Buckles etc are Silver and / or Gold in colour, this is not to infer they are solid Silver or Gold unless they are Hallmarked, and if so they will be stated in the description as such i.e.. 'Hallmarked Silver' or 'Hallmarked Gold'. In regard to the embellishment and the furniture of weaponry, the 'Act of 1738' [the Plate [Offences] Act 1738, & the 1738 exemptions] exempted the requirement of an assay mark for gold and silver mounts of swords, daggers, pistols and guns. Therefore on the many weapons that may be fitted with solid silver mounts [for example] no hallmarks will be present, unless stated otherwise. Regarding Web shop photos, for items that are Generic, such as Pattern Swords or De-activated Military Arms we may use generic photographs, but for illustrative purposes only. Antique cartridge taking guns are sold as per Home Office guidelines section 58 (2). An antique gun that is chambered for an obsolete cartridge, therefore may, by virtue of section 58(2) of the 1968 Firearms Act, be freely possessed within the UK, provided that it is sold, transferred, purchased, acquired or possessed as a curiosity or ornament.
Exchange Rates for Non UK Based Clients
With the constant fluctuation in the world's currency exchange rates we try to update our exchange rate guide fairly regularly in respect to the three main rates of Pounds Sterling, US Dollars and Euros. However, our exchange rates are for general guide purposes only, we are only able to charge for each sale in our domestic currency of Pounds Sterling, and the current prevailing conversion rate is then charged by the purchaser's bankers or charge/credit card issuers. This rate may differ, either up or down, from our guide rate.
Book Orders, Deliveries Etc.
As books are often most heavy, and large quantities are exceptionally so, it is often desirable, for economic reasons, that arrangements for collection and shipping to be made by the purchaser. We can organise delivery for large orders but the cost can be quite excessive.
Please see our shop in The Sunday Times Culture Magazine in the Book section March 2006. As with our old site, we have many thousands of books, and as books are our largest single selling line we have just too many pass through our hands to even begin to list them all in stock. Please email us if you seek a particular item you don't see available. We are, as usual, actively seeking rare old books with a historical interest, we have an urgent request for a numbered second edition "The 7 Pillars of Wisdom", by T.E. Lawrence. Please contact us if you may be able to help. Please contact us personally for all our consignment terms for all types of items, we will be happy to send you a copy. Special discounts can be arranged for the purchase of books in excess of 50 in one order.
WE ARE SEEKING NEW ITEMS EVERY DAY
Many items you see on our site have taken us great efforts to acquire, involving the traveling of thousands of miles, and we urgently wish to buy similar items from those seeking to sell. We can be contacted by telephone on; 01273 321357, or, email us at; firstname.lastname@example.org, or, simply write to; The Lanes Armoury, 26 Meetinghouse Lane, Brighton, East Sussex BN11HB. All transactions are accomplished with the very highest courtesy, and full discretion and confidentiality is assured.
Notice Regarding UK Gun Licenses
We do not sell Arms or Swords that are restricted or licensable. All our items are entirely restriction free. All UK customers may purchase our weaponry safe in the knowledge that no restrictions or licenses are required, or, apply. We sell to over 18's only. Antique guns that are chambered for an obsolete cartridge, may, by virtue of section 58(2) of the 1968 Firearms Act, be freely possessed within the UK, provided that it is sold, transferred, purchased, acquired or possessed as a curiosity or ornament. The latest amendment to the above act, as of July 2014, states that no one with a criminal record, that required a 3 month suspended sentence or greater, may own or possess an antique gun for 5 years after the conviction.
German WW2 Third Reich and Stalinist Items
Important notice, compared to other items of history that we sell, a very small percentage of our inventory are German, WW2 Third Reich items, as well as Stalinist period communist items. They are however, very much a highly relevant section of recent, modern history, from likely the most important and significant era in modern man's evolution. They are in no way sold to reflect, or aid, any political bent whatsoever. We are only interested in selling them to collectors of modern, historical artefacts. Furthermore, as copies of German WW2 items are so thoroughly prolific these days, we try to be especially selective in that particular area, wherever possible only buying from accredited and reputable sources, and therefore our selection and indeed our expertise on this particular and sensitive subject is limited. Please be assured we make every effort to offer items of that nature that we are confident in, or, as we describe accordingly. If any mail order purchase is made, of German WW2 militaria, that any buyer is not happy with, please feel free to return immediately [within 10 days] for a full refund.
Monthly Weekend Book Sales/ Clearance
Due to the success of the weekend book sales [for in-house visitors] we will be having them regularly. Please email us at the Lanes Armoury the Premier Brighton Gun Shop, Brighton Sword Shop and Bookshop for details.
"Bearded battle axe from Battle of Falkirk in 1298" From the GLASGOW HERALD August 6th 2009
by GEORGE MAIR
A Medieval battle axe used against the English at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, has been put up for sale by an English armoury.
The rare weapon was discovered on the site of the battle, in which William Wallace's Scots army was defeated by the English king Edward I.
The steel "bearded" axe is thought to have belonged to a Scots foot soldier who may have used it the previous year to help win the Battle of Stirling Bridge before dying on the battlefield at Falkirk. His axe was found centuries later and hung on the wall of a noble's mansion until it found its way to Lanes Armoury in Brighton, East Sussex. Mark Hawkins, of the Lanes Armoury, said yesterday: "This was a pretty gruesome thing, designed expressly for combat, to chunk in to people.
"And it was a very effective weapon - a man who knew how to wield a battle axe was a very dangerous opponent.
"An axe like this has an awful lot of metal, so it could be lost on the battlefield and lie buried for hundreds of years relatively intact - unlike a sword which will rot away."
Medieval bearded axes - so called because of their beard-like appearance - like those used at the Battle of Falkirk, and later also at Bannockburn in 1314, were influenced by the Vikings.
They were a standard weapon for foot soldiers on both sides. Mr. Hawkins, a leading expert in antique arms and armour, said: "This was the weapon of a foot soldier - its haft is too long to wield from a horse.
"It was his prized possession, and simply too valuable to discard so it is likely its owner was killed.
"The only alternative is that a small crack visible on the socket occurred on the battlefield and rendered it un-useable.
"When it was found many years later it would not have been of much use, but it was a fabulous looking thing."
The battle axe was available from Lanes Armoury for £1195.
The Battle of Falkirk, on July 22, 1298, was a disaster for Scotland, with more than 2000 Scots killed. LATEST. The Lanes Armoury are especially pleased to announce the axe has now been returned home to Falkirk under it's latest stewardship by it's new owner [in August 2009]
Valuation For Insurance
Unless for probate purposes, unfortunately we do not appraise, value or make valuations for any items, at all. This is due to the considerable amount of subjective variations, as to types, condition, scarcity, desirability and all and any potential, as yet unknown, restoration costs. Value is always a subjective opinion that we cannot estimate. Purchasing Policy;..When we make our offer to purchase it is clearly made as that, an offer, to purchase an item or items from the legitimate owner or representative, over the age of 18 years, without any lien, finance or customs duties outstanding. Our offer is for immediate payment, whether by cash, cheque, or bank transfer. It is not a representation of a valuation.
Fair use notice
This website may contain copyrighted material the use
of which has not been specifically authorised by the copyright owner.
We are making such material and images available in our efforts to
advance the understanding of all military history and the weaponry used from the past three millennia for
educational & recreational purposes. All we are mainly concerned with, within our contextual descriptions, is the gaining, sharing and passing on knowledge. There is now way history, science or medecine, to name but a few, can progress or be remembered unless we all learn and duly pass on our knowledge. Knowledge should not be hoarded away or concealed, it must be spread and desseminated for the benefit of all. We believe this constitutes a
'fair use' of any such copyrighted material, as provided for in UK
copyright law. The information is purely for educational and research
purposes only. No profit is made from any of the material used. If you
hold the copyright on any material on the site, or material refers to
you, and you would like it to be removed, please let us know and we
will be delighted to remove it.