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A Beautiful Early 17th Century Shinto Wakazashi

All original Edo period mountings, iron leaf shaped tsuba, most beautiful polished blade with elegant sugaha hamon. Delightful kozuka utility knife, Wakizashi have been in use as far back as the 15th or 16th century. The wakizashi was used as a backup or auxiliary sword; it was also used for close quarters fighting, and also to behead a defeated opponent and sometimes to commit ritual suicide. The wakizashi was one of several short swords available for use by samurai including the yoroi toshi, the chisa-katana and the tanto. The term wakizashi did not originally specify swords of any official blade length and was an abbreviation of "wakizashi no katana" ("sword thrust at one's side"); the term was applied to companion swords of all sizes. It was not until the Edo period in 1638 when the rulers of Japan tried to regulate the types of swords and the social groups which were allowed to wear them that the lengths of katana and wakizashi were officially set.

Kanzan Sato, in his book titled "The Japanese Sword", notes that the wakizashi may have become more popular than the tanto due to the wakizashi being more suited for indoor fighting. He mentions the custom of leaving the katana at the door of a castle or palace when entering while continuing to wear the wakizashi inside. Wakizashi were worn on the left side, secured to the obi [waist sash]. overall 24 inches long in saya, blade 17.25 inches long

Code: 23391

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SOLD A Very Handsome Shinshinto Era Samurai Katana

SOLD How most attractive original antique samurai sword, around 240 years old, with silk tsukaito binding, beautiful Edo period copper fittings engraved and a plain Edo period circular iron plate tsuba. This is a super example of an absolute bargain in the world samurai weaponry it has just arrived today and is a very nice antique sword for relative little expenditure. Blade has some tiny areas of age pitting throughout, but that is reflected in its very low price, we are rarely are able to offer original antique katana samurai swords at this kind of price level. It has a traditional wooden saya, Mumei tang

Code: 23445

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A Koto 16th Century Ancestral Bladed Japanese 'Crew-Gunto' Officer's Sword of WW2

SOLD...Its super blade was made around 500 years ago, and thus this sword would have seen service by up to 30 samurai within it's service lifetime. Then, by its very last owner it was mounted and taken to war by likely the eldest son, a pilot, from a family with samurai ancestry. The Japanese fighter plane often had a metal container within the cockpit that would hold the pilots katana. Although the pilot was never expected to need his sword while on a mission, he was expected to die with it if his plane should crash or explode, and if his plane was to crash land, and he survived, he would have a sword to maintain his life in potential enemy territory. The blade has a stunning hamon and in beautiful polish. A short Crew Gunto mounted sword, with an early Koto period ancestral chisa katana blade in full polish showing a simply fabulous and active hamon. The whole sword is simply in super condition for it's age. The blade is set with its silver covered Edo period habaki, all it's traditional WW2 Showa brass fittings, a fine 1936 pattern pierced gunto tsuba, with its black lacquer wooden saya. It is known as a short crew-gunto as carried by a Japanese fighter pilot from 1936 until 1945. The saya would once have had a leather protective cover. The shorter military mounted sword worn during WW2 for those that fought, during combat, in a small and restricted area that was most unsuitable for the standard long sword, such as the Zero fighter plane. Photo in the gallery shows a Kamikaze pilot after being issued his Kaiten in a ritual ceremony, please note he is holding while seated his 'Aircrew' short gunto sword, he was pilot captain of Special-Attack Party Hakkō-Second Party Ichiu-Unit, that he carried in his plane when on combat missions. Another two photos of Japanese pilots with their crew gunto swords, for information only photos not included. Collectors frequently seek Shin Gunto swords that have an original handed down 'Ancestral' blade, as it is said less than one in a hundred Japanese swords, surrendered in WW2, were swords such as this. This form of sword was often the perogative of an eldest born son, that went to fight for his Emperor in WW2, with his ancestor's blade set in traditional military mounts. This sword is an exceptional piece of WW2 Japanese historical interest, very early ancestral swords are scarce in themselves, outnumbered at least 10 to 1 by gendaito swords, but the short 'crew gunto' are much rarer than even that, in our experience, so this makes it potentially, in theory, well over a 100 times scarcer than a regular Japanese WW2 officers sword in our opinion. Apart from information on it's 1945 source, sadly, we do not know the name of it's WW2 officer owner that document was lost. Overall 31.5 inches long in black saya, Blade 19.5 inches from tsuba to tip [

Code: 23442

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A Very Good Japanese Shikome-zue Sword Stick, Probably a Koto 1400's Chisa Katana Bade

RESERVED. RVDA. This is one of the nicest of it's type we have ever seen, with a beautiful chisa katana blade up to around 600 years old. Fine smith made samurai blade of super quality in good polish for age with engraved hi and a pure gold decorated habaki, with engraved lines and rain drop pattern. Very finely carved wooden saya and tsuka to similate bamboo. In the 1870's the Meiji Emperor disbanded the fuedal samurai order and banned the wearing of the sword. This created much unrest between the samurai and the government and some samurai moved to carrying shikome-zue hidden sword. Therefore, via a circuitous route, they still remain armed, but with their katana hidden from view. But by that way they felt, least in part, their honour remained intact. With a long and most elegant blade. In ninjutsu shikomizue became quite popular, as it provided the night warriors with what they needed most – versatility, secrecy and mortality. The walking sticks were popular among all the classes and carrying it caused no suspicion. Combined with the impersonation skills, shikomizue was really a dangerous weapon attacking the enemy most suddenly. This is possibly one of the nicest of it's types we have ever seen. The blade is typical chisa katana with elegant central hi. Very nice sugaha hamon in very nice 95% original polish. The stick is fully and superbly hand carved to simulate bamboo . This piece absolutely reminds us of the world reknown fictional blind samurai Zatoichi. He does not carry a traditional katana, instead using a very well traditionally made shikomi-zue (cane sword) just as this sword is. Zatoichi's cane sword, his weapon was forged by a master bladesmith and is of superior quality, just like this rare, fine traditional ancient chisa katana bladed example. We show an 1817 Japanese print by Hokusai of his depiction of an all black clad warrior [so called ninja] climbing a rope, with what appears to be his shikomezue hidden sword stick. Blade 20.5 inches long, 35.5 inches long overall.

Code: 23323

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A Good Mid Edo Period Antique Samurai Katana

Nicely graduating curvature to the blade, very attractive tsukaito over traditional rayskin and gold embellished flowering menuki. Carved patinated fushigashira of nice quality. Iron Edo tsuba with feint traces of the rays of Buddha pattern chisseling. A samurai was recognised by his carrying the feared daisho, the big sword [daito], little sword [shoto] of the samurai warrior. These were the battle katana, the big sword, and the wakizashi, the little sword. The name katana derives from two old Japanese written characters or symbols: kata, meaning side, and na, or edge. Thus a katana is a single-edged sword that has had few rivals in the annals of war, either in the East or the West. Because the sword was the main battle weapon of Japan's knightly man-at-arms (although spears and bows were also carried), an entire martial art grew up around learning how to use it. This was kenjutsu, the art of sword fighting, or kendo in its modern, non-warlike incarnation. The importance of studying kenjutsu and the other martial arts such as kyujutsu, the art of the bow, was so critical to the samurai, a very real matter of life or death, that Miyamoto Musashi, most renowned of all swordsmen, warned in his classic The Book of Five Rings: The science of martial arts for warriors requires construction of various weapons and understanding the properties of the weapons. A member of a warrior family who does not learn to use weapons and understand the specific advantages of each weapon would seem to be somewhat uncultivated. This fine samurai sword, like all true and original samurai swords, would have been the prize possession of every samurai that owned it. It would most likely have cost more than his home, and would certainly have been more important.
This is just one reason why fine Japanese sword steel, even of this tremendous age, is in such good state of preservation. When a katana such as this has been, for its entire existence, so highly revered, treasured and appreciated, it will have been cared for most sensitively and treated with the utmost respect during its entire life. Leather covered wooden saya. In many regards it will have represented the only thing that stood between its samurai owner, of which there may have been several, during this swords history in the Edo period, and his ultimate downfall in a combat situation.
cert of authenticity
A Good Mid Edo Period Antique Samurai Katana
Nicely graduating curvature to the blade, very attractive tsukaito over traditional rayskin and gold embellished flowering menuki. Carved with a vine leaf design, in patinated copper, a matching pair of fushigashira of nice quality. Silvered and gilt botanical menuki under the gold silk wrap, over traditional white giant rayskin on the tsuka [hilt]. Double copper habaki [blade collar]. Blade with suguha hamon and blade in nice condition showing natural aging. Typical long nakago of the period with good natural aging and traces of file marks , single mekugiana. Iron round plate Edo period tsuba with feint traces of the rays of Buddha pattern chisseling. A samurai was recognised by his carrying the feared daisho, the big sword daito, little sword shoto of the samurai warrior. These were the battle katana, the big sword, and the wakizashi, the little sword. The name katana derives from two old Japanese written characters or symbols: kata, meaning side, and na, or edge. Thus a katana is a single-edged sword that has had few rivals in the annals of war, either in the East or the West. Because the sword was the main battle weapon of Japan's knightly man-at-arms (although spears and bows were also carried), an entire martial art grew up around learning how to use it. This was kenjutsu, the art of sword fighting, or kendo in its modern, non-warlike incarnation. The importance of studying kenjutsu and the other martial arts such as kyujutsu, the art of the bow, was so critical to the samurai, a very real matter of life or death, that Miyamoto Musashi, most renowned of all swordsmen, warned in his classic The Book of Five Rings: The science of martial arts for warriors requires construction of various weapons and understanding the properties of the weapons. A member of a warrior family who does not learn to use weapons and understand the specific advantages of each weapon would seem to be somewhat uncultivated. This attractive samurai sword, like all true and original samurai swords, would have been the prize possession of every samurai that owned it. It would most likely have cost more than his home, and would certainly have been more important. This is just one reason why fine Japanese sword steel, even of this tremendous age, is in such good state of preservation. When a katana such as this has been, for its entire existence, so highly revered, treasured and appreciated, it will have been cared for most sensitively and treated with the utmost respect during its entire life. Leather combat covered wooden saya. In many regards it will have represented the only thing that stood between its samurai owner, of which there may have been several, during this swords history in the Edo period, and his ultimate downfall in a combat situation.

Code: 23454

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ARRIVING SOON! A Very Good British, King George IIIrd Officer's-Duelling Flintlock Pistol.

Napoleonic Wars Era fine English flintlock, made by Dunderdale, Mabson and Labron. With original ivory tipped ramrod. Lock signed and with rolling frizzen. Good action and finely engraved brass mounts with pineapple finial trigger guard. Fine juglans regia walnut stock. Used by an officer who would likely have served in the Peninsular campaign and possibly the Battle of Waterloo. Good working action 15 inches long overall. As used by all officers and gentlemen of status in the King George IIIrd era. Duelling was such part of life in Georgian England, some duels gained almost mythic status. In fact they were such a part of society we show in the gallery a superb satirical painting of a duel between animals, entitled "Before the Monkey Duel" by Bristow. English guns of this period are probably the most sought after in the world by collectors, Finest walnut full-stock and steel barrel. Excellent engraved brass furniture, fully engraved throughout with acorn finial to the trigger guard. Original ivory tipped ramrod. Duelling practices and rituals were codified in the Code Duello of 1777 which set forth rules describing all aspects of an "affair of honour," from the time of day during which challenges could be received to the number of shots or wounds required for satisfaction of honour. For gentlemen the law "offered no redress for insults" he might be subject to from rivals and enemies. Shooting a fellow officer in a duel "gave a sharp edge to one's reputation, earned congratulations in the regimental mess, and brought admiring glances from the ladies…. Higher military authorities…regarded duelling as a proof test of courage…" Although theoretically banned by British Army regulations, refusing a challenge was likely to result in an officer having to leave his regiment, for the same rules that banned duelling forbade an officer from submitting to "opprobrious expressions" or "any conduct from another that should degrade him, or, in the smallest way impeach his courage." To decline a challenge was often equated to defeat by forfeiture, and was sometimes even regarded as dishonourable. Prominent and famous individuals ran an especial risk of being challenged for duels.
Among the most famous duels are the American Burr-Hamilton duel, in which notable Federalist Alexander Hamilton was fatally wounded, and the duel between Duke of Wellington and the 10th Earl of Winchelsea, wherein each participant intentionally missed the other. 200 years ago, in the middle of the Napoleonic wars, Britain launched a military and naval expedition to Walcheren in Holland. It failed. George Canning, the foreign secretary, sought covertly to blame his rival, Lord Castlereagh, and to have him removed from the War Office. When Castlereagh discovered what was going on, he wrote to Canning: “You continued to sit in the same Cabinet with me, and to leave me not only in the persuasion that I possessed your confidence and support as a colleague, but you allowed me to… proceed in the Execution of a new Enterprise of the most arduous and important nature, with your apparent concurrence… You were fully aware that if my situation in the government had been disclosed to me, I could not have submitted to remain one moment in office, without the entire abandonment of my private honour and public duty. You knew I was deceived, and you continued to deceive me.” Castlereagh demanded “satisfaction”, by which he meant a duel. The two men met on Putney Heath. Both missed with their first shots, but Castlereagh insisted on a second round and wounded Canning in the thigh, without doing him serious injury. There was a public scandal: duelling was against the law. Both men resigned, but both later returned to high office: Castlereagh’s career, which had been expiring, revived, while Canning ultimately, though briefly, became prime minister. Two officers in Napoleon’s army spent 19 years attempting to eliminate each other up in a series of duels that were always bloody but never lethal. Their dispute began in 1794 when Captain Dupont was ordered to stop Captain Fournier attending a party. Fournier took umbrage, challenged Dupont and thy fought the first of 17 duels. As the years passed, they drew up a contract. If they came within 100 miles of each other, they would fight, military duty alone excusing a duel. Such was their companionship in honour that on occasion they dined together before fighting. In the end, by 1813, General Dupont tired of fighting General Fournier. He also wished to marry. So he arranged an unusual duel in which they stalked one another in a forest, armed with two pistols. Dupont stuck his coat on a stick and tricked hi opponent into firing twice. Dupont spared Fournier’s life but told him that if they duelled again, he reserved the right to fire two bullets first from a few yards range. They never fought again. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23518

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SOLD. A Fabulous Rare Norman Early Crusader's Sword With Cross of Christ ✝️ Inlaid Blade Of The 1100’s AD

An original Norman Sword with undoubted Viking influences, (as the Normans were historically Viking) a Christian cross Inlay from the 12th-13th century, 1100's to 1200's. In Ewart Oakeshott’s 'Records of the Medieval Sword', out of 230 surviving examples inspected just 35 of them had crosses remaining on some part of the weapon. This works out to being approximately only 15% of the 230 swords counted and the majority of swords containing crosses seem to date prior to 1300. An iron double-edged sword of Petersen Type X and Oakeshott Type Xa, its tapering blade with narrow fullers and battle nicks to both edges, one side with copper cross of Christ inlay; wide guard of Oakeshott Style 1, sturdy tang and 'tea-cosy' form pommel. Fine condition throughout. Cross guard mobile. The 11th and 12th centuries the Norman knight was possibly the most feared warrior in Western Europe. He was descended originally from the Vikings who had settled in Northern France under their leader Rollo in or around 911 at the behest of Charles the Simple and throughout the following centuries they remembered and built on their warlike reputation. Their military prowess was renowned throughout the known world and resulted in Normans conquering Sicily in 1060 and England in 1066, as well as participating in many important battles in Italy and playing a major part in the First Crusade. Most historians consider the sermon preached by Pope Urban II at Clermont-Ferrand in November 1095 to have been the spark that fueled a wave of military campaigns to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim control. Considered at the time to be divinely sanctioned, these campaigns, involving often ruthless battles, are known as the Crusades. At their core was a desire for access to shrines associated with the life and ministry of Jesus, above all the Holy Sepulcher, the church in Jerusalem said to contain the tomb of Christ. Absolution from sin and eternal glory were promised to the Crusaders, who also hoped to gain land and wealth in the East. Nobles and peasants responded in great number to the call and marched across Europe to Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine empire. With the support of the Byzantine emperor, the knights, guided by Armenian Christians , tenuously marched to Jerusalem through Seljuq-controlled territories in modern Turkey and Syria. In June 1099, the Crusaders began a five-week siege of Jerusalem, which fell on July 15, 1099 . Eyewitness accounts attest to the terror of battle. Ralph of Caen, watching the city from the Mount of Olives, saw “the scurrying people, the fortified towers, the roused garrison, the men rushing to arms, the women in tears, the priests turned to their prayers, the streets ringing with cries, crashing, clanging and neighing.”
From a private family collection; previously acquired from a collection formed before 1990; thence by descent; accompanied by an archaeological report by the military specialist Dr. Raffaele Amato.
See Petersen, J., De Norske Vikingsverd, Oslo, 1919; Oakeshott, E., Records of the Medieval Sword, Woodbridge, 1991; Oakeshott,E., The sword in the Age of the Chivalry, Woodbridge, 1964 (1994); Gravett, C., Medieval Norman Knight, 950-1204 AD, London, 1993; Peirce, I., Swords of the Viking Age, Suffolk, 2002; practically identical guard and pommel of the sword from Hagerbakken (Petersen, 1919, fig.124).
Footnotes
This type usually presents a slender blade, generally long in proportion to the hilt with a narrow fuller running for much of the blade’s length to within a few inches of the point. The tea-cosy or Brazil-nut variants were the most popular forms of pommel for this typology, from the late 10th century onwards (Gravett, 1993, p.5). According to Petersen, this type was not originally of Nordic origin, even if some specimens were forged in the Nordic lands. The sword is found in such quantities that it exists not only over the whole of Nordic countries, but also over the whole of Central Europe. It was a common Germanic type in Central and Northern Europe during the century preceding the Crusades, and it was still the typical Norman sword of the 12th century. 1.2 kg, 33 3/4". Oakeshott co-founded the Arms and Armour Society in 1948 and his first publications are found in the Society's journals. Thus the Oakeshott legacy lives on through his books, articles, and through The Oakeshott Institute. One of the Institute's objectives is "To continue the research of Ewart Oakeshott into the study and classification of swords from the European context, improving our understanding of the materials, construction and stylistic development of these objects." The seminal study of the topic of Viking swords is due to Jan Petersen (De Norske Vikingsverd, 1919).

Petersen(1919): Devised the original hilt typology of 26 types that is still widely used across Europe for classifying and dating Viking swords. Based on about 1,700 finds of Viking swords in Norway this typology remains the most commonly used. Petersen's types are identified by capital letters A–Z. Petersen listed a total of 110 specimens found in Norway. Of these, 40 were double-edged, 67 were single-edged and 3 indeterminate The seminal study of the topic is due to Jan Petersen (De Norske Vikingsverd, 1919). Incredibly swords of this time, providing they stayed within the ancestral family of the knights for whom it was originally made in the 1100s, could still have been used up to and including the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Sword design had not changed a great deal in that time and if an English knight had had a famous ancestor from several generations before using the sword, it is easily conceivable that he would continue to use it in combat into the 15 century. The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. The battle took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) in the County of Saint-Pol, Artois, some 40 km south of Calais. Along with the battles of Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), it was one of the most important English triumphs in the conflict. England's victory at Agincourt against a numerically superior French army crippled France, and started a new period in the war during which the English began enjoying great military successes.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers perished due to disease and the English numbers dwindled, but as they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais they found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers forming up to 80 percent of Henry's army. The decimation of the French cavalry at their hands is regarded as an indicator of the decline of cavalry and the beginning of the dominance of ranged weapons on the battlefield.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories. The battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by Shakespeare. Juliet Barker in her book Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle ( published in 2005) argues the English and Welsh were outnumbered "at least four to one and possibly as much as six to one". She suggests figures of about 6,000 for the English and 36,000 for the French, based on the Gesta Henrici's figures of 5,000 archers and 900 men-at-arms for the English, and Jean de Wavrin's statement "that the French were six times more numerous than the English". The 2009 Encyclopædia Britannica uses the figures of about 6,000 for the English and 20,000 to 30,000 for the French. £13,500

Code: 23427

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SOLD Propaganda Book Ein Buch vom neuen Heer With Original Fly Cover.

Hauptmann Georg Haid
Ein Buch vom neuen Heer Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, W.Keller & Co., Stuttgart
Hitler's new German Wehrmacht in words and pictures.176 pp. - Bound - Dimensions: 24 cm x 16.5 cm slight signs of wear. NSDAP office Schleswig Holstein dept. Named to owner. The position of Gauleiter of the NSDAP in Schleswig-Holstein was held by Hinrich Lohse from its establishment on 26 February 1925 throughout the history of the Gau, with the exception of a six-month period in 1932 when the office was held by Joachim Meyer-Quade. From 1941 onward Lohse was simultaneously in charge of the Reichskommissariat Ostland where he was responsible for the implementation of Nazi Germanization policies built on the foundations of the Generalplan Ost: The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was an extreme socialist political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of Nazism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920. The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was later downplayed to gain the support of business leaders

Code: 23503

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SOLD WW2 German Propaganda Book. 'Advance' Colour photos by Heinz Schröter, with a foreword by Helmut Jahn

Complete edition in the original publisher's binding (stiff cover / paperback / cardboard cover 13.7 x 18.7 cm) with spine and cover title. About 60 uncounted pages, with many - partly double-sided - photo illustrations (war events during the western campaign in France and Belgium). The small WI series, published by the propaganda company of an army (WI = Western Front Illustrierte). - German / Third Reich, Greater Germany in World War II, illustrated books, warfare in National Socialism, Wehrmacht, western campaign in France, tank attack, German tank attack in the picture, soldiers on the enemy, German war experience, war photography, colour photography before 1945, Wehrmacht. In good condition (cover slight signs of wear,otherwise very good) Published in Paris in 1942. Sent to the staff office from the printers. The Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS (German: Hauptamt Persönlicher Stab Reichsführer-SS) was a main office of the SS which was established in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler to serve as a personal office coordinating various activities and projects subordinate to the Reichsführer-SS. n 1933, Karl Wolff came to the attention of Himmler who in June 1933, appointed Wolff his adjutant and made him chief of the office of his Personal Staff. Himmler also appointed Wolff the SS Liaison Officer to Hitler. As Himmler's principle adjutant and close associate, Wolff's daily activities involved overseeing Himmler's schedule and serving as a liaison with other SS offices and agencies. The office conveyed the wishes/interests of the Reichsführer to all branches, offices, and subordinated units within the SS. It also handled Himmler's personal correspondence and awarded decorations. Wolff managed Himmler's affairs with the Nazi Party, state agencies and personnel. Following the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in 1942, Wolff fell out with Himmler and was replaced by Maximilian von Herff who served as its head until the end of the war.

Himmler also established several special project teams under the authority of his personal office. This included the staff of the Wewelsburg castle as well as the Ahnenerbe. This team of experts was interested in the anthropological and cultural history of the Aryan race. It conducted experiments and launched voyages with the intent of proving that prehistoric and mythological Nordic populations had once ruled the world.

Code: 23501

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SOLD Original German Book of The History of The Iron Cross 1813 to 1939. Das Eieserne Kreuz The Iron Cross

Bauch, Kurt: Published in Berlin in 1941, by Verlag von E.S. Mittler & Sohn. Berlin. A must have reference book in German for any collector of the world famous German Iron Cross. With fly leaf cover but perished down the spine cover, inner and outer. Thin cardboard hardback. Including quotes from the Kaiser and Adolf Hitler. The Iron Cross comes in two grades, Second Class and First Class. This example the Iron Cross First Class could only be awarded for an act of outstanding bravery and also to one who had previously received the Iron Cross Second Class. Hence, the First Class was more restricted and more highly prized. When the Iron Cross First Class was awarded, the Iron Cross Second Class was signified with a small ribbon attached to a button. Adolf Hitler was awarded this identical type of 1st Class Iron Cross in WW1, and always wore it throughout WW2 with pride. Next to the Victoria Cross, it is the most famous medal in the world. The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other conspicuous military contributions in a battlefield environment. In order to receive the Iron Cross 1st Class Heer and Waffen SS men would have to perform three to four further acts of courage from the one that earned him the 2nd Class; The Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had the following criteria; the award was regularly awarded to U-boat Commanders upon sinking 50,000 tons and to Luftwaffe pilots when they achieved six or seven confirmed
kills; Of course these were only guidelines, and a single act of great importance or a long steady career could earn the individual the Cross. The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: When in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar. For everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button.
The Iron Cross is a black four-pointed cross with white trim, with the arms widening toward the ends, similar to a cross patt?e. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century.

Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until 1838 when the sprig facing could be presented.

Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. For example, an Iron Cross from the First World War bears the year "1914", while the same decoration from the Second World War is annotated "1939". The reverse of the 1870, 1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year "1813" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration also has the initials "FW" for King Frederick William III, while the next two have a "W" for the respective kaisers, Wilhelm I and Wilhelm II. The final version shows a swastika. A cross was the symbol of the Teutonic Knights (a heraldic cross patt?e), and the cross design (but not the specific decoration) has been the symbol of Germany's armed forces (now the Bundeswehr) since 1871.

Code: 23500

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