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A Very Fine Pair of 1800's English, Cased, Rifled Duelling Pistols, of Capt Robert Lloyd RN By John and William Calvert, With Finest Silver Inlaid Barrels by Johann Christoph Kuchenreiter.

From the time of King George IIIrd'. The previous owner's family have found the original duelling pistol's wooden case, but they are photographed as is, at present, without the case, but it should arrive quite soon. A stunning pair of original English duelling pistols, with a pair of silver inlaid barrels by one of Europe's finest barrel makers of his day, Christoph Kuchenreiter of Bavaria. It was often the case that a gentleman when commissioning a pair of finest pistols would request the addition of the finest imported barrels for the German rifle barrel maker's were, with good reason, considered to be some of the finest in the world. The stocks are finest Juglans Regia walnut, and the steel mounts and lock bear some of the best England had to offer. After very considerable, and diligent family research the intriguing potential history of these finest duelling pistols is detailed herein. They were originally from the estate [over some 150 years ago] of the late Admiral Robert Lloyd RN 'Admiral of the White' a Royal naval flag rank officer of distinction who served at the Glorious Ist of June, in the Anglo French War, the Napoleonic Wars against Napoleon, and in the War of 1812 in America. During the War of 1812 the US government approved the innovative and experimental use of a Torpedo in order to sink his ship, HMS Plantagenet, and thus sabotage its blockade of New London. The pistols bear his personal family monogram and his personal Lloyd's family silver crest of a demi lion argent in two cartouches at the pistols wrists. It would be wonderful to think these pistols accompanied the then Captain Lloyd aboard his ships during these incredible eventful times in his career. They were made by John & William Calvert, who were fine English gunsmith's with premises together at 73 Briggate Leeds, between 1804-1822. The barrels are by one of the greatest Bavarian rifled barrel makers in Europe, Johann Christoph Kuchenreiter, and are thus inlaid with his name in gold. These are simply outstanding examples of the highest-grade flintlock pistol barrels produced by the famous Bavarian gunsmith Johann Christoph Kuchenreiter. Kuchenreiter was part of a dynasty of Bavarian gunsmiths that produced highest quality arms for many of the royal houses of the various Germanic states and Austria. His pistols are in the British Royal Collection, and examples of his work are in all of the finest museum arms collections in the world. Robert H Lloyd. Vice-Admiral of the White, was born 24 March, 1765, and died 17 Jan. 1846, at his family seat, at Tregayan, county Anglesey.

He entered the Navy, on the 31 March, 1779, as a Captain's Servant, on board the HMS Valiant a 74 gunner, then as a Midshipman berth in HMS Fairy under Capts. Berkeley, Keppel, and Brown, he was wounded in a sharp action which preceded the capture of that sloop by the French frigate Madame. After a captivity of some time in France, he was prisoner-exchanged around March, 1781, and on his return to England was received on board the Medway a 74 gunner, under Capts. Harwood and Edgar. He next, between May, 1782, and July, 1787, served on the Channel station in HMS Hebe a frigate, under Capts. Keppel and Edw. Thornbrough, and on 22 Nov. 1790, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. Obtaining an appointment, in Dec. 1792, to the Latona 38, Capts. Thornbrough and Hon. Arthur Kaye Legge, Mr. Lloyd fought under the former of those officers in the action of 1 June, 1794; and on rejoining him as Senior Lieutenant in HMS Robust, he served in Lord Bridport's action, and was severely wounded in the expedition to Quiberon. On 6 Dec. 1796 he was promoted to the command of HMS Racoon in the North Sea; where, after a short running fight, in which the Racoon had 1 person, the Master, killed, and 4 wounded, he succeeded in taking, on 11 Jan. 1798, Le Policrate a French privateer, of 16 guns and 72 men;and, on 22 of the same month, La Pensee, of 2 guns, 9 swivels, and 32 men. Capt. Lloyd, who had previously captured Les Amis, of 2 guns, 6 swivels, and 31 men, made further prize, 20 Oct. following, at the end of a running action of two hours, of La Vigilante, of 14 guns and 50 men. Prior to his attainment of Post-rank 6 Dec. 1799, he had the increased good fortune to sink a French lugger, and to eifect the capture of the privateers Le Vrai Decide, of 14 guns, 4 swivels, and 41 men, and L'Intrepide, of 16 guns and 60 men, 13 of whom were killed and wounded. On the latter occasion he unfortunately received a wound in the head from a half-Pike. His last appointments were ? 12 Jan. 1801, to the Mars 74, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Thornbrough in the Channel, where he remained until April, 1802 to 25 March, 1807, to the Hussar 38, in which ship, after assisting at the reduction of Copenhagen, he visited North America and the West Indies 31 May, 1809, and 25 Sept. 1810, to the Guerriere 40, and Swiftsure 74, flagship of Sir John Borlase Warren, both on the North American station and, 11 Feb. 1812 (after ten months of half-pay), to the Plantagenet 74. Continuing in the latter vessel until paid off in April, 1815, Capt. Lloyd was at first employed in the Baltic, and afterwards again in North America, where he captured a large number of coasters, and accompanied the expeditions against Washington and New Orleans. He commanded HMS Plantagenet in the Chesapeake campaigns 1813-15 in the War of 1812. In Spring 1813, the US Congress passed the Torpedo Act, offering rewards to any private citizen who succeeded in blowing up a British vessel. During the British blockade of New London, Connecticut, on June 25, 1813, a schooner loaded with explosives blew up next to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Ramillies killing one British naval officer and ten Royal Navy seamen. While not exactly a torpedo attack, the incident sent a clear message that open warfare was declared on enemy war vessels while in United States waters. Adm. Sir John Borlase Warren, chief of the North American naval station blustered, "the Enemy are disposed to make use of every unfair and Cowardly mode of warfare." Another British naval officer labelled the use of torpedoes "a most dastardly method of carrying on the war."
On the 26th of September, 1814, the General Armstrong was lying at anchor in the road of Fayal. Her aster was Samuel Chester Reid, 3 and she had a crew of ninety men on board. A British squadron, composed of the Plantagenet, 74, Captain Robert Lloyd, Rota, 38, Captain Philip Somerville; and Carnation, 18, Commander George Bentham, hove in sight towards sundown. Experience had taught the Americans not to trust to the neutrality of a weak Power for protection; and Reid warped his brig near shore, and made ready to repel any attempt to cut her out. Soon after dark Captain Lloyd sent in four boats. He asserted that they were only sent to find out what the strange brig was; but of course no such excuse was tenable. Four boats, filled with armed men, would not approach a strange vessel after nightfall merely to reconnoitre her. At any rate, after repeatedly warning them off, Reid fired into them, and they withdrew. He then anchored, with springs on his cables, nearer shore, and made every preparation for the desperate struggle which he knew awaited him. Lloyd did not keep him long in suspense. Angered at the check he had received, he ordered seven boats of the squadron, manned by about a hundred and eighty picked men, to attack the privateer. He intended the Carnation to accompany them, to take part in the attack; but the winds proved too light and baffling, and the boats made the attempt alone. Under the command of Lieutenant William Matterface, first of the Rota, they pulled in under cover of a small reef of rocks, .where they lay for some time; and, at about midnight, they advanced to the attack.

The Americans were on the alert, and, as soon as they saw the boats rowing in through the night, they opened with the pivot-gun, and immediately afterwards with their long 9's. The British replied with their boat carronades, and, pulling spiritedly on amidst a terrific fire of musketry from both sides, laid the schooner aboard on her bow and starboard quarter. A murderous struggle followed. The men-of-wars' men slashed at the nettings and tried to clamber up on the decks, while the privateersmen shot down the assailants, hacked at them with cutlass and tomahawk, and thrust them through with their long pikes. The boats on the quarter were driven off; but on the forecastle the British cut away the nettings, and gained the deck. All three of the American mates were killed or disabled, and their men were beaten back; but Reid went forward on the run, with the men of the after division, and tumbled the boarders back into their boats. This put an end to the assault. Two boats were sunk, most of the wounded being saved as the shore was so near; two others were captured; and the others, crippled from their losses, and loaded with dead and disabled men, crawled back towards the squadron. The loss of the Americans was slight. Two were killed and seven wounded. The fearful slaughter in the British boats proved that they had done all that the most determined courage could do. Two-thirds of the assailants were killed or wounded. The number killed was 34, including Lieutenants William Matterface and Charles E. Norman. The number wounded was 86, including Lieutenant Richard Rawle, Lieutenant Thomas Park, R.M., Purser William Benge Basden, and two Midshipmen.

The brig's long 24 had been knocked off its carriage by a carronade shot, but it was replaced and the deck again cleared for action. Next day the Carnation came in to destroy the privateer, but was driven off by the judicious use of the long-gun. However, as soon as the wind became favourable, the Carnation again advanced. Further resistance being hopeless, the General Armstrong was scuttled and burned, and the Americans retreated to the land.
Use of Fulton's torpedo in the Chesapeake Bay was sanctioned by Secretary of the Navy William Jones who told Capt. Charles Gordon of the Baltimore U.S. Navy station to give every aid to a Mr. Elijah Mix. In a secret memo of May 7, Jones instructed Gordon to furnish [Mix] with 500 lbs of powder, a Boat, or Boats, and Six men. Mix made several attempts to blow up the ship of the line HMS Plantagenet on blockade duty off the Virginia capes. On July 24, Mix almost succeeded in his plans but the torpedo exploded prematurely, deluging the decks of the British vessel with seawater. It appears from Elijah Mix's April 27, 1815 letter to Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Crowninshield requesting his furlough from the Navy that Mix had been kicking his heels waiting for new employment after his efforts to sink Plantagenet, because Crowninshield's predecessor, Secretary William Jones, suspended the torpedo program:

"Permit me. . . To remark that I have [a]waited orders at this port [New York City] since October 1814 when I was released from the torpedo service from the compliment that I had the Honor to receive from the President, after my expedition against the Plantagenet, I had no doubt but I should resume my Command again, in the Chesapeake; but unfortunate for me and my country Mr. Jones was Opposed to torpedoes. I have spent independent of my pay upwards of two thousand Dollars and one years hard service to acquire a perfect knowledge of the use and certainty using those formidable Engines with Effect, but to my mortification all aid has been withdrawn. . . ."

While it possible that Secretary of the Navy Jones caved into British pressure against the use of such a dastardly method of warfare, Hamlin mentions a letter from Jones in which the Secretary gave Elijah Mix a sharp reprimand for not continuing with his efforts to sink the Plantagenet. Thus, the suspension of the program may have had more to do with Jones?s distrust of Elijah Mix's diligence than any submission to British pressure. On the 29th December 1813, HMS Plantagenet was off Bermuda and her commander, Captain Robert Lloyd wrote to his Admiral with a list of his successes against America so far. It was very long:

Sloop Jolly Robin of 4 men and 50 tons, from Boston bound to Charleston, captured September 8 1813.
Schooner Torpedo of 40 tons from New York bound to New Orleans, captured September 11 1813.
Sloop Olive Branch of 50 tons captured same date.
Schooner Delight of 50 tons captured September 15 1813.
Schooner name unknown captured same date.
Schooner Jacks Delight of one gun from New Orleans bound to New York captured October 12 1813.
Schooner Sparrow of 1 gun and 100 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 3 1813.
Sloop Elizabeth of 30 tons captured November 5 1813.
Sloop James Madison of 1 man and 25 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 7 1813.
Sloop Active of 5 men and 57 tons from New York bound to Savannah captured November 12 1813
Sloop Lady Washington of 15 men and 70 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured November 15 1813.
Schooner Betsy of 5 men and 60 tons from Savannah bound to New York, captured November 21 1813.
Schooner Margaret and Mary of 5 men and 37 tons from Philadelphia boudn to New York captured November 27 1813.
Sloop Anna Maria of 7 men and 60 tons from Philadelphia bound to New York captured same date.
Schooner John and Mary of 60 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 29 1813.
Sloop Five Sisters of 5 men and 60 tons from New York bound to Philadelphia captured December 2 1813.
Sloop New Jersey of 42 tons from Barnygatebound to New York captured same date.
Sloop Two Peters of 3 men and 38 tons from Little Egg bound to New York captured same date.
Schooner Batsch of 3 men and 61 tons from New York bound to Little Eggcaptured December 4 1813.
Schooner Unicorn of 6 men and 30 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured December 5 1813.
Schooner Margaret of 2 men and 36 tons from New York bound to Barnygate captured December 8 1813
Sloop Victory of 60 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured December 10 1813.
Schooner Little Mary of 3 men and 26 tons from New York bound to Charleston captured December 12 1813.
Schooner Rapid of 21 men, 1 gun and 115 tons from Havannah bound to New York captured December 16 1813.
Schooner Mary of 4 men and 34 tons from Philadelphia bound to Salem captured December 17 1813. sighted octagonal polygroove rifled barrels fitted with rear leaf sights, inlaid in silver with scrolls and I Christoph Kuchenreiter, the breeches are set with the maker's tablet embossed with horse and rider and the initials ICL, border engraved stepped locks signed by the maker, incorporating an automatic safety on half cock, French style cocks, rainproof pans, roller frizzens, full stocked with steel mounts, the trigger guards engraved with the owner's initials of Robert Lloyd and with pineapple finials, circular white metal escutcheons engraved with the owner's crest of a demi-lion, slab-sided butts chequered to the fore and rear, brass capped wooden ramrods. Small stock repair at the lock area during its working life.

Code: 22120

18950.00 GBP

Shortlist item
A Very Good Viking Spear with Tang, Circa 8th Century.

Many historians commonly associate the term "Viking" to the Scandinavian term vikingr, a word for "pirate." However, the term is meant to reference oversea expeditions, and was used as a verb by the Scandinavian people for when the men traditionally took time out of their summers to go "a Viking." While many would believe these expeditions entailed the raiding of monasteries and cities along the coast, many expeditions were actually with the goal of trade and enlisting as foreign mercenaries.

The Viking Age generally refers to the period from A.D. 800, a few years after the earliest recorded raid, until the 1050s, a few years before the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, according to Angelo Forte, Richard D. Oram and Frederik Pedersen, authors of "Viking Empires" (Cambridge University Press, 2005). During this time, the reach of the Scandinavian people extended to all corners of northern Europe, and many other nations found Vikings raiding their coasts. The farthest reported records of Vikings were in Baghdad for the trading of goods like fur, tusks and seal fat.

Spears in the Sagas
"Then Thorolf became so furious that he cast his shield on his back, and, grasping his spear with both hands, bounded forward dealing cut and thrust on either side. Men sprang away from him both ways, but he slew many."

- Egil's Saga, Chapter 53

"Gunnar clutches the spear with both hands, and turns on (Thorbrand) quickly and drives it through him, and hurls him down on the ground. Then up sprung Asbrand his brother. Gunnar thrusts at him with the spear, and he threw his shield before the blow, but the spear passed clean through the shield and broke both his arms, and down he fell from the wall."

- Njal's Saga, Chapter 76

"At this brunt Helgi, the son of Hardbien, rushed in with a spear, the head of which was an ell long, and the shaft bound with iron. When Bolli saw that he cast away his sword, and took his shield in both hands, and went towards the dairy door to meet Helgi. Helgi thrust at Bolli with the spear right through the shield and through him."

- The Laxdale Saga, Chapter 55

The spearheads were made of iron, and, like sword blades, were made using pattern welding techniques (described in the article on swords) during the early part of the Viking era . They could be decorated with inlays of precious metals or with scribed geometric patterns
After forming the head, the smith created the tang in the early period, such as for a javelin type spear, or in the later Viking mostly a socket fitting for a regular spear. Sometimes with holes for rivets to grip onto the haft.

However, there is little evidence that tells us the length of the shaft. The archaeological evidence is negligible, and the sagas are, for the most part, silent. Chapter 6 of Gísla saga tells of a spear so long-shafted that a man's outstretched arm could touch the rivet. The language used suggests that such a long shaft was uncommon.

Perhaps the best guess we can make is that the combined length of shaft and head of Viking age spears was 2 to 3m (7-10ft) long, although one can make arguments for the use of spears having both longer and shorter shafts. A strong, straight-grained wood such as ash was used. Many people think of the spear as a throwing weapon. One of the Norse myths tells the story of the first battle in the world, in which Odin, the highest of the gods, threw a spear over the heads of the opposing combatants as a prelude to the fight. The sagas say that spears were also thrown in this manner when men, rather than gods, fought. At the battle at Geirvör described in chapter 44 of Eyrbyggja saga, the saga author says that Steinþórr threw a spear over the heads of Snorri goði and his men for good luck, according to the old custom. More commonly, the spear was used as a thrusting weapon. The sagas tell us thrusting was the most common attack in melees and one-on-one fighting, and this capability was used to advantage in mass battles. In a mass battle, men lined up, shoulder to shoulder, with shields overlapping. After all the preliminaries, which included rock throwing, name calling, the trading of insults, and shouting a war cry (æpa heróp), the two lines advanced towards each other. When the lines met, the battle was begun. Behind the wall of shields, each line was well protected. Once a line was broken, and one side could pass through the line of the other side, the battle broke down into armed melees between small groups of men.

Before either line broke, while the two lines were going at each other hammer and tongs, the spear offered some real advantages. A fighter in the second rank could use his spear to reach over the heads of his comrades in the first rank and attack the opposing line. Konungs skuggsjá (King’s Mirror), a 13th century Norwegian manual for men of the king, says that in the battle line, a spear is more effective than two swords. In regards to surviving iron artefacts of the past two millennia, if Western ancient edged weapons were either lost, discarded or buried in the ground, and if the ground soil were made up of the right chemical composition, then some may survive exceptionally well. As with all our items it comes complete with our certificate of authenticity. 13.5 inches long overall

Code: 23610

595.00 GBP

Shortlist item
A Most Impressive Heavy Bronze Age Battle Damaged Spear Head from The Era Of The Siege of Troy

A fine acquisition from the time of the Grand Tour. Items such as this were oft acquired in the 18th century by British noblemen touring the Middle East, Northern France and Italy on their 'Grand Tour'. Then placed on display in the family's 'cabinet of curiosities', within his country residence upon his return home. A popular pastime in the 18th and 19th century, comprised of English ladies and gentlemen travelling for many months, or even years, throughout classical Europe, and the Middle East, acquiring antiquities and antiques for their private collections. A bronze tanged spearhead, with superb aged patination, with heavily ridged and tapered blade, the edges showing blunt impact damage from battle, with short and collared shaft and square section tapered tang. A type of weapon often made by the renown bronze makers, in the valleys around the Zagros mountains, in the ancient Babylonian Kingdom period, but traded throughout the entire Eastern Mediterranean region 3000 odd years ago. The ancient Greeks believed the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey . "The Iliad" relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders. Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets such as Virgil and Ovid. 351 grams, 11 1/2". Fine condition.

Code: 23608

695.00 GBP

Shortlist item
A Most Fine Bronze Age Leaf Shaped Spear Head With Tang Around 3000 to 3200 years old

The for of ancient spear head traded around the Eastern Mediterranean from Persia to Greece in the 13th-7th century BC. A bronze leaf-shaped spearhead with central midrib and square-sectioned tang which terminates in right-angle turn. 180 grams, 7 3/4". provenance from a private collection in Cambridgeshire
Items such as this were oft acquired in the 18th century by British noblemen touring the Middle East, Northern France and Italy on their Grand Tour. Originally placed on display in the family 'cabinet of curiosities', within his country house upon his return home. A popular pastime in the 18th and 19th century, comprised of English ladies and gentlemen travelling for many months, or even years, throughout classical Europe, and the Middle East, acquiring antiquities and antiques for their private collections. A type of weapon often made by the renown bronze makers, in the valleys around the Zagros mountains, in the ancient Babylonian Kingdom period, but traded throughout the entire Eastern Mediterranean region 3000 odd years ago. The ancient Greeks believed the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey . "The Iliad" relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders. Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets such as Virgil and Ovid

Code: 23609

495.00 GBP

Shortlist item
Now Applied on All items, Celebrating The 20th Anniversary of Our BACA Award Success With Massive 20% Discount, Due to Popular Demand, Now Applies to EVERYTHING

Celebrating The 20th Anniversary of Our BACA Award Success With Massive 20% Discount on All items
On this Fabulous Anniversary occasion, by way of a special thank you, we were offering for a brief period 20% discount on all our fabulous Samurai weaponry, swords, dagger, tsuba, polearms etc. both large and small. However, many who bought japanese swords through this offer, wanted it to apply to other items too, so, once we agreed for one of our most favoured US clients, a Florida museum collector, who bought 16 fabulous items this morning, we have to, in all fairness apply it for all our clients. That will translate to a huge saving on our amazing range of absolutely everything, with many pieces being sold at cost or even below cost. This is a tradition that goes back for us through the generations, to invite our clients far and wide to celebrate with us our significant steps on the progress of the family business that stretches back over 100 years.

****To deduct your 20% discount simply contact us by email, or using our usual 24-hour phone number, 07721 010085, before you buy in the basket system, and we will re-adjust the price of your chosen item or items for you to purchase online with the 20% discount reduction, and you can then buy online as usual. Or, you can simply arrange payment by card direct with us personally, via email or telephone, it is a simple as that. Another simple alternative will be buy online as usual and we will arrange a return payment for your discount amount.

Save an incredible 20 gbp on every 100 gbp or 200 gbp on every 1,000 gbp, or 800 gbp saved on 4000 gbp etc. that you spend!!

****Important.. our basket system does not show the 20% discount, so contact us first if you want to buy with a card and we can re adjust the price online accordingly, or we can take your order by phone. Bank Transfer is fine too. All discounts qualify for outright sales only.

Code: 23605


Frank Barker & Son Victorian Officer's 'Night Marching' Compass

Works well, surface could improve with cleaning. Used from the Zulu War right through till WW1. Dating to the last quarter of the 19th century, this Barker compass is very similar to the Verners MK III patterns.
It's a non prismatic model, and the white compass card is surrounded by a silvered bearing ring with a brass manual stop & finger brake on one side.
In full working order, it measures 2" in diameter and is in good cosmetic condition, with a chip free crystal.
Signed 'F Barker & Son makers London' on the bottom e compass features an aluminium card with a large hand-painted North-South arrow, painted centre, and jewelled pivot. The card may have been painted with a luminous compound (most probably ?Balmain?s Luminous Paint?), which was activated by exposure to very bright light, often created by burning a strip of magnesium ribbon. There is a sighting window in the lid and an additional sighting point in the loop. The compass has an oxidised brass case, a transit lock, and a manual brake. Compasses of this type are known to have been manufactured by Francis Barker in London from around 1875. British Company founded in London by Francis Barker (1820 - Dec. 15, 1875) in 1846. Two years later, in 1848, he set up a second company, Groves and Barker - Mariners' Compass and Sundial Makers with his friend and former co-apprentice Richard Groves and they traded from 16 Market Street, Clerkenwell, London. Richard died in 1864 and about one year after his death Groves & Barker was absorbed into the thriving F. Barker & Son. F. Barker & Son also took over and incorporated the company J & G Simms (where he and Richard Groves had learned their trade) in 1855 once both the brothers had died. This compass was used from the late 1870's in the Zulu War, later into the Boer War and then WW1

Code: 22252

185.00 GBP

Shortlist item
A Fabulous Agincourt Period 'War-Hound' Spiked Iron Combat Armour.

15th Century from the period of King Henry Vth and the Battle of Agincourt era. In smith forged iron with it's multiple rows of spikes within a frame body, complete with it's circular neck shape form intact. On 12 August 1415, Henry sailed for France, where his forces besieged the fortress at Harfleur, capturing it on 22 September. Afterwards, Henry decided to march with his army across the French countryside towards Calais despite the warnings of his council. On 25 October, on the plains near the village of Agincourt, a French army intercepted his route. Despite his men-at-arms being exhausted, outnumbered and malnourished, Henry led his men into battle, decisively defeating the French, who suffered severe losses. It is often argued that the French men-at-arms were bogged down in the muddy battlefield, soaked from the previous night of heavy rain, and that this hindered the French advance, allowing them to be sitting targets for the flanking English and Welsh archers. Most were simply hacked to death while completely stuck in the deep mud. Nevertheless, the victory is seen as Henry's greatest, ranking alongside the Battle of Cr?cy (1346) and the Battle of Poitiers (1356) as the greatest English victories of the Hundred Years' War. ?Sir Piers Legh II (died 16 June 1422), also known as Sir Piers de Legh and Peers Legh, was the second generation of the Leghs who was wounded in the Battle of Agincourt. His Mastiff stood over him and protected him for many hours through the battle. The dog returned to Legh's home and was the foundation of the Legh Hall mastiffs. Five centuries later, this pedigree figured prominently in founding the modern English Mastff breed" an old stained glass window remains in the drawing room of Legh Hall portraying Sir Piers and his devoted mastiff. He was injured again in action in 1422 and died as a result of his wounds in Paris" He was Buried at St Michael's church, Macclesfield in the Legh chapel, which had been built to receive his body. Between years 1387-1388, in the ?Hunting Book?, Gast?n F?bus speaks about dogs ?Alaunts are able to cross all other bloods, to which it cuts their ears to evenness to avoid to them be wounded in the fight?. In Spain the great war dog was the alaunt or prey-dog, in Britain it was the similar Mastiff or Bull Mastiff. In the stories of the writers of the time, it was spoken of the Alaunts that the Spanish explorers took to cross the virgin forests of South America. There was some of these stories, in which they narrated an infinity of anecdotes with respect to intelligence, bravery and fidelity that owned the Alaunts.
In March 24, 1495, within the Antilles was the first battle of the native Indians, and commanded by the Caonabo Cacique was a battle with dogs. The brother of Crist?bal, Bartolom? Col?n, employed 200 men, 20 horses and 20 Alaunts like Spanish forces. It was the ?debut? of the Alaunts in the American Conquest. Some Alaunts deserved, for their services, that one pays to them their fair due. Fernandez de Oviedo speaks of a Alaunt called ?Becerrillo", which always accompanied the conqueror Diego de Salazar. One said that ten soldiers with ?Becerrillo", were made more fearful than more than one hundred soldiers without the dog. For that reason it had its part in booties, and received it's pay like any soldier. War Dogs were trained to fight in combat either against man or beasts such as bulls. We show pictures in the gallery of famous war dogs from the time of Ancient Rome by Romans, by Ancient Britons, being used in Medieval England and in the US Civil War.

Code: 22321

1495.00 GBP

Shortlist item
A Very Fine 16th Century Italian Field Armour Breast Plate Circa 1520

For field combat and with mountings for use in the tilt. A very fine and original piece of finest Italian armour. Medially ridged breast plate with moveable gusset and roped arm and neck-openings. With two alligned holes for resting a lance for the tilt. The plate also has a key slot for an addition of reinforcing plate also for the tilt or joust. Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen and using lances, often as part of a tournament. The primary aim is to strike the opponent with the lance while riding towards him at high speed, if possible breaking the lance on the opponent's shield or armour, or by unhorsing him.

Jousting emerged in the High Middle Ages based on the military use of the lance by heavy cavalry. It transformed into a specialised sport during the Late Middle Ages, and remained popular with the nobility both in England and Germany throughout the whole of the 16th century (while in France, it was discontinued after the death of king Henry II in an accident in 1559). In England, jousting was the highlight of the Accession Day tilts of Elizabeth I and James I, and also was part of the festivities at the marriage of Charles I. The medieval joust took place on an open field. Indeed the term joust meant "a meeting" and referred to arranged combat in general, not just the jousting with lances. At some point in the 14th century, a cloth barrier was introduced as an option to separate the contestants. This barrier was presumably known as tilt in Middle English (a term with an original meaning of "a cloth covering"). It became a wooden barrier or fence in the 15th century, now known as "tilt barrier", and "tilt" came to be used as a term for the joust itself by ca. 1510. The purpose of the tilt barrier was to prevent collisions and to keep the combatants at an optimal angle for breaking the lance. This greatly facilitated the control of the horse and allowed the rider to concentrate on aiming the lance. The introduction of the barrier seems to have originated in the south, as it only became a standard feature of jousting in Germany in the 16th century, and was there called the Italian or "welsch" mode. Dedicated tilt-yards with such barriers were built in England from the time of Henry VIII.

Specialized jousting armour was produced in the late 15th to 16th century. It was heavier than suits of plate armour intended for combat, and could weigh as much as 50 kg (100 lb), compared to some 25 kg (50 lb) for field armour; as it did not need to permit free movement of the wearer, the only limiting factor was the maximum weight that could be carried by a warhorse of the period

Code: 22317

3950.00 GBP

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Original 19th Century Emperor Menelik IInd Ethiopian Shotel With Exotic Carved Horn Hilt Deeply Curved Fully Etched Blade With Scrolling, Amharic Script & a 1780 Silver Austro Hungarian Thaler Pommel

Curved blade fully etched in its tooled brown leather scabbard. These very unusual swords with very curved blades come from the "Horn of Africa," which includes Abyssinia, which we now know as Ethiopia. Made famous just before WWII by the Italian Invasion of that Country, and the appeal by it's Emperor Haile Selassie to the League of Nations, which the Western Powers basically ignored. It's Capital is Addis Ababa, a city dating back some 2,000 years and more. A country much in the news but also a land largely still in the middle ages in some respects.
The sword, oft described as a shotel but actually it is a gorade, with its very characteristic curved blade. The swords dates back to the reign of Amda Seyon the 1st, known as "the Pillar of Zion" who was Emperor from 1314 - 1344. Called shotel, while technically the proper term locally for sabre was 'gorade'. Shotel which is not an Amharic word, Amharic for sword is gorade .The blade is etched with the profile of Emperor Menelik II, and also the symbol of the emperor, the Lion of Judah. The rest of the blade is etched with fancy scrolls. Menelik II baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913) was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913 and King of Shewa from 1866 to 1889. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state was completed by 1898. He is widely honoured by many Ethiopians and commemorated during the celebration of the Battle of Adwa, which is celebrated on March 1 or 2 across Ethiopia and in the diaspora. Many Pan-Africans regard him as an advocate for African independence against European powers during the Scramble for Africa. Selassie
Haile Selassie was one of the most famous leaders in Ethiopian history. As the emperor, he was exiled during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia due to the status he held. Selassie would go onto return to Ethiopia and help in taking back control of the country from Italy. On April 2, 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen became Emperor Haile Selassie. Selassie was the last reigning monarch of Ethiopia’s Solomonic Dynasty. The Solomonic Dynasty traces its ancient ancestry to King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, biblical figures who may have lived during the 10th century BCE.

Ethiopia is often acknowledged as the only nation in Africa never to have been colonized, and Selassie emerged as a powerful international figure as other African countries sought independence in the 20th century. His long reign and enduring policies (such as support for African unity and the abolition of slavery in Ethiopia) earned him a privileged position at international summits. For instance, Selassie was one of the highest-ranking diplomats at the funeral of U.S. President John Kennedy.

Selassie’s greatest impact may have been on the island of Jamaica. Jamaican religious leaders adopted a version of his birth name, Tafari (Ras was an official title) and Rastafarians regard Selassie as a god. (Selassie himself remained a Christian throughout his life.). Photo in the gallery of Emperor Hallie Selassie in full dress uniform. The Maria Theresa taler is a silver bullion coin and a type of Conventionstaler, first minted in 1741. The official weight is 28.0668 grams (0.99003 oz) and contains 23.386 grams (0.752 troy ounces) of fine silver. It has a silver content of .833 and a copper content of .166 of its total millesimal fineness. In 1751 this new standard Conventionstaler was effectively adopted across the German-speaking world when it was accepted formally in the Bavarian monetary convention. This new, post-1751 thaler has continued as a trade coin ever since. The last year of minting was in 1780, the year in which Maria Theresia died. As this cointype was very popular they continued the production, always been dated 1780. The Maria Theresia taler quickly became a standard trade coin and several nations began striking Maria Theresa talers. The following mints have struck Maria Theresia talers: Birmingham, Bombay, Brussels, London, Paris, Rome and Utrecht, in addition to the Habsburg mints in Günzburg, Hall, Karlsburg, Kremnica, Milan, Venice Prague, and Vienna. The Maria Theresa talers could also be found throughout the Arab world, especially in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Muscat and Oman, in Africa, especially in Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya. This item is not suitable for export.

Code: 23600


A Very Nice Bronze Spear of Ancient Greek Antiquity, Minoan Era, Around 4000 Years Old

One of our two Minoan spears we were thrilled to acquire [originally used in the ancient Greek mainland and outlying islands] but we are selling separately. This one is the longer and narrower of the two. Examples similar have been found elsewhere in Cyprus and Crete from the same era. Three similar were discovered some years ago in Vounous, Cyprus dated around 2300-2000 BC from the tomb 78 of the ancient cemetery in Vounous. These kind of spear heads have a tang, ending in a hook, which was fixed into the wood. The blade was than further secured to the wood shaft by a wrap of laching cord. Minoan Crete, named after the legendary King Minos, was ruled from great palaces, most of which were founded around 2000 BC. Material from the palace of Knossos is displayed in this gallery, along with pottery, bronzes and stone vases from elsewhere in Crete, including from tombs and shrines. There is also evidence for writing in the form of the undeciphered Linear A script. The later Greek Bronze Age is named after Mycenae, the capital city of Agamemnon who according to myth led the Greeks at the siege of Troy. Mycenaean culture extended throughout mainland Greece, the Aegean islands and Crete. The Greek language is first recorded in this period in the Linear B script derived from Minoan Crete. Following the collapse of this civilisation in the 12th century BC, Greece entered a period of relative poverty and isolation when writing was forgotten. During this time, stories about the grand lifestyles of Mycenaean rulers continued to be told, influencing later poets such as Homer, whose Iliad and Odyssey were set in what we call the Bronze Age. In the epic poem The Odyssey, the Greek poet Homer praised an island that lies “out in the wine-dark sea . . . a rich and lovely sea-girt land, densely peopled, with 90 cities and several different languages.” This sophisticated place is not just a random spot in the Mediterranean—Homer is describing Crete, southernmost of the Greek islands and home to one of the oldest civilizations in Europe. Located some 400 miles northwest of Alexandria in Egypt, Crete has been inhabited since the Neolithic period, around 7000 B.C. The culture that developed there during the second millennium B.C. spread throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean world. Crete’s command of the seas would allow its stunning art and architecture to deeply influence the Mycenaean Greek civilization that would succeed it. Photo in the gallery of a Bull’s head rhyton [ritual pouring vessel] from the palace at Knossos, c. 1550-1500 B.C.E., in black steatite, jasper, and mother-of-pearl, 26 cm high (Archaeological Museum of Heraklion,] From a private collection formed in the Netherlands before the 1980's . This spear is 27cm long

Code: 23599

545.00 GBP

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