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The kris also known as keris is called a wilah or bilah. Kris blades are usually narrow with a wide, asymmetrical base. The kris is famous for its wavy blade; however, the older types of kris dated from the Majapahit era have straight blades, and they are the types, such as this one that were used for ceremonial executions.The execution by keris is called hukuman salang. Salang is synonymous with keris panjang.The executioner made the victim to squat then drove the keris panjang from certain spot inside his collar bone down to the heart. The number of luk or curves on the serpentine regular keris blade is always odd. Common numbers of luk range from three to thirteen waves, but some blades have up to 29. In contrast to the older straight type, most kris have a wavy blade which is supposed to increase the severity of wounds inflicted upon a victim. During kris stabbing, the wavy blade severs more blood vessels, creating a wider wound which causes the victim to easily bleed to death.
According to traditional Javanese kejawen, kris contain all the intrinsic elements of nature: tirta (water), bayu (wind), agni (fire), bantolo (earth, but also interpreted as metal or wood which both come from the earth), and aku (lit: "I" or "me", meaning that the kris has a spirit or soul). All these elements are present during the forging of kris. Earth is metal forged by fire being blown by pumped wind, and water to cool down the metal. In Bali, the kris is associated with the naga or dragon, which also symbolizes irrigation canals, rivers, springs, wells, spouts, waterfalls and rainbows; thus, the wavy blade symbolizes the movement of the serpent. Some kris have a naga or serpent head carved near the base with the body and tail following the curves of the blade to the tip. A wavy kris is thus a naga in motion, aggressive and alive; a straight blade is one at rest, its power dormant but ready to come into action.
In former times, kris blades were said to be infused with poison during their forging, ensuring that any injury was fatal. The process of doing so was kept secret among smiths. Different types of whetstones, acidic juice of citrus fruits and poisonous arsenic bring out the contrast between the dark black iron and the light coloured silvery nickel layers which together form pamor, damascene patterns on the blade. The distinctive pamor patterns have specific meanings and names which indicate the special magical properties they are believed to impart"The Kris Panjang is worn generally by the Malayan aristocracy, and bridegrooms. I have seen some beautiful specimens of this weapon in Rumbowe, worn by the chiefs of that state. The blades resembled that of a long keen poniard, of Damascus steel; the handles of ebony, covered with flowered gold, and sheaths richly ornamented with the same metal: they are used in the execution of criminals."
Thomas John Newbold, in 1839 wrote
."The last sentence of death passed by Abdul Syed (or Dholl Syed), the ex-Panghúlu, was on a Quedah man, named Sali, in 1805. This Malay had carried off from Malacca two Chinese slaves, a man and a woman; meeting some resistance from the former, he murdered him with his kris, in the forest of Londu, and proceeded with the woman to Pila, in Srimenanti, where he sold her as a slave. "
The present superintendent of Naning, Mr, Westerhout, who was an eye-witness, described to me the ceremony of his trial and execution. The criminal was conducted, bound, to Bukit Penialang, or "Execution Hill," near Tabu. The Panghúlu, the Ampat Suku, the twelve Panglimas, the Bandahara, and the Makdum, were all seated in judgment, under a cluster of Tambuseh trees, on the skirt of the hill.
The witnesses were brought forward, and examined by the Panghulu himself. The evidence against the prisoner being deemed conclusive, according to the forms of the Mohammedan law, he was sentenced, agreeably to the Adat Menángkábowe, to pay one Bhar, equivalent to 24 Sp. drs. 30 cents.) or to suffer (salang) death by the kris.
Being unable to pay the fine, preparations were made for his immediate execution. The grave was dug on the spot, and he was placed, firmly bound in a sitting posture, literally on its brink. For further security, two panglimas sat on each side, while the Panglima Besar Sumun unsheathed the weapon that was to terminate the mortal existence of the trembling wretch.
On the point of the poniard, the kris panjang, the panglima carefully placed a pledget of soft cotton, which he pressed against the man's breast, a little above the right collar-bone. He then slowly passed the weapon's point through the cotton, on which he kept the fingers of his left hand firmly pressed, in a direction obliquely to the left into his body, until the projection of the hilt stopped its farther progress. The weapon was then slowly withdrawn, the panglima still retaining the cotton in its place by the pressure of his fingers, so as to staunch effectually all external effusion of blood.
The criminal, shuddering convulsively, was immediately precipitated into the grave; but on making signs for water, was raised. He had barely time to apply his lips to the cocoa-nut- shell in which it was brought, when he fell back into the grave quite dead. The earth was then hastily thrown over the body, and the assembly dispersed."
-J.B. Westerhout, 1805. Blade 21 inches, overall in scabbard 27 inches
In the Neolithic period (later stone age) people started to settle down and start farming. At places such as Springfield Lyons, these early settlements have been identified. It was also at this time when stone tools, which up until this point had been purely functional, started to take on a more symbolic meaning. Polished stone axes and other tools that were never used have been found across the county, showing changes in social hierarchy and possibly even the development of religion. The Neolithic also known as the "New Stone Age", the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago (4500 BC), marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world (the New World) remained in the Neolithic stage of development until European contact.
The Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
The term Neolithic derives from the Greek neos and lithos "New Stone Age". The term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system..
In 1751 the Regimental naming convention was simplified with all British Regiments assigned a ranked number of precedence (instead of naming after the present colonel) therefore the Regiment became the 10th Regiment of Foot. The Regiment went on to serve during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) fighting at the Battles of Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill, the New York Campaign, Germantown, Monmouth and Rhode Island. Returning to England in 1778 after 19 years service overseas.
In 1782 all British Regiments without Royal titles were awarded county titles in order to aid recruitment from that area and the 10th became the 10th (North Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot. The Regiment went on to fight against the French in Egypt and Portugal during the French Revolutionary War (1792–1802) and the Peninsular War (1802-1814). It also served in India during the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) fighting at the Battle of Sobraon, the Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849) and the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The Regiment also served in Japan from 1868-1871, protecting the small foreign community in Yokohama which maintained the only foreign trading port in Japan at the time.
A stunning looking piece and a most impressively mounted example with delightful pamor blade. Pamor is the pattern of white lines appearing on the blade. Kris blades are forged by a technique known as pattern welding, one in which layers of different metals are pounded and fused together while red hot, folded or twisted, adding more different metals, pounded more and folded more until the desired number of layers are obtained. The rough blade is then shaped, filed and sometimes polished smooth before finally acid etched to bring out the contrasting colours of the low and high carbon metals. The traditional Indonesian weapon allegedly endowed with religious and mystical powers. With probably a traditional Meteorite laminated iron blade with hammered nickel for the contrasting pattern. Very small area of wood snake body lacking under the hilt. The blades could often be older that the mountings, as they were frequently remounted in the blades working life, just as this one has late mountings
In very nicely preserved condition. Acquired in the 1820's while on a Grand Tour of Northern France near Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais. The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt, in northern France.The unexpected English victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France and started a new period of English dominance in the war.
After several decades of relative peace, the English had resumed the war in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the numerical disadvantage, the battle ended in an overwhelming victory for the English.
King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army as he suffered from psychotic illnesses and associated mental incapacity. The French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers comprising nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.
Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of William Shakespeare's play Henry V, written in 1599.
With pipe back blade showing worn traces of fancy etching, including Queen Victoria's royal cypher. Shows service use wear commensurate with its use in combat. Traditional 3 bar hilt, wire bound blackened grip. There is a near identical example to be seen in 'Crimean Memories', by Hutchison, Vice and Small, used by Capt. Reginald Curtis, and another in British Cavalry Swords by Richard Dellar, used by Lt John Hudson who carried it in action in the last year of the Crimean War. In the Crimean War (1854-56), the Light Dragoons were in the forefront of the famous Charge of the Light Brigade, immortalized by Tennyson's poem of that name ("Into the valley of death rode the six hundred").
The regiments adopted the title hussars at this time, and the uniform became very stylish, aping the hussars of the Austro-Hungarian army. But soon the blues and yellows and golds gave way to khaki as the British army found itself in skirmishes throughout the far-flung Empire, in India and South Africa especially.
For example in 1854 the 13th Hussars regiment received its orders from the War Office to prepare for service overseas. Five transport ships - Harbinger, Negotiator, Calliope, Cullodon, and the Mary Anne, embarking between the 8 May and 12 May, carried 20 officers, 292 other ranks and 298 horses. After a troubled voyage, the regiment arrived at Varna, Bulgaria on the 2 June. On the 28 August the entire Light Brigade (consisting of the 4th Light Dragoons and 13th Light Dragoons, 17th Lancers, the 8th Hussars and 11th Hussars, under the command of Major General the Earl of
Cardigan) were inspected by Lord Lucan; five men of the 13th had already succumbed to cholera.
On the 1 September the regiment embarked for the Crimea - a further three men dying en-route.
On the 20 September the regiment, as part the Light Brigade, took part in the first major engagement of the Crimean War, the Battle of the Alma. The Light Brigade covered the left flank, although the regiment?s role in the battle was minimal. With the Russians in full retreat by
late afternoon, Lord Lucan ordered the Light Brigade to pursue the fleeing enemy. However, the brigade was recalled by Lord Raglan as the Russians had kept some 3,000 uncommitted cavalry in reserve.
During the 25 October the regiments, the Light Brigade, took part in the Battle of Balaclava and the famous Charge of the Light Brigade.
The 13th Light Dragoons formed the right of the front line. The 13th and 17th moved forward; after 100 yards the 11th Hussars, in the second line, also moved off followed by the
4th and 8th. It was not long before the brigade came under heavy Russian fire. Lord Cardigan, at the front of his
men, charged into the Russian guns receiving a slight wound. He was soon followed by the 13th and 17th. The two squadrons of the 13th and the right squadron of the 17th were soon cutting down the artillerymen that had remained at their posts. Once the Russian guns had been passed,
they engaged in a hand-to-hand fighting with the enemy that was endeavoring to surround them
by closing in on either flank. However, the Light Brigade having insufficient forces and suffering heavy casualties, were soon forced to retire. Capt. Louis Edward Nolan (January 4 1818-October 25 1854), who was a British Army officer of the Victorian era, an authority on cavalry tactics, and best known for his controversial role in launching the disastrous Charge of the Light Brigade during the Battle of Balaclava. He was the first casualty of that engagement. No scabbard, the grip has a thin split at the pommel area where it was re-affixed.
Signed two sided single page of Captain Dundas' log, aboard HMS Naiad, off Rochfort, on 23rd and 24th February 1809, at the The Battle of Les Sables-d'Olonne. On official Admiralty watermarked paper, bearing the1805 dated watermark. This fabulous piece of original Royal Naval history would look stunning framed for display. Thomas Dundas joined the Royal Navy on 23 May 1778, when he was entered as captain’s servant on HMS Suffolk. A year later, he joined HMS Alfred and was soon made midshipman. Over the next few years, he served in HMS Fame, Formidable and Edgar before passing for lieutenant in November 1788. However, he did not obtain his lieutenant’s commission until war with France broke out in 1793. Two years later, he was promoted commander and then captain in 1798. In 1799, when commanding the West Indiaman La Prompte, he captured the Spanish ship Urca Cargadora. He was appointed captain of HMS Naiad in 1804 and remained in command of her. In 1825, he was promoted rear admiral and then vice admiral in 1837. He was created KCB in 1831 and died on 29 March 1841.For his services at Trafalgar, Dundas was awarded a Lloyds Patriotic Fund £100 presentation sword which is now in the collection of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
In August 1805, during the campaign before Trafalgar, the Naiad spotted the Combined Fleet, was chased by them but escaped to bring the news to Admiral Cornwallis. Shortly before Trafalgar, Nelson put Dundas and the Naiad under Blackwood’s (HMS Euryalus) command as part of the frigate squadron that became the ‘eyes of the fleet’. The Naiad was one of the frigates watching Cadiz for any sign of the Combined Fleet making a move. On 19 October, the Combined Fleet set sail and the Naiad repeated the signals from the Euryalus to that effect. By early October 1805, Naiad was attached to a small squadron of frigates charged by Admiral Lord Nelson with disrupting supplies to the combined enemy fleet at Cadiz. However, they were unable to prevent the enemy departing Cadiz on 20 October for a final and devastating confrontation with the British fleet under Nelson’s command.
On the morning of the 21st, as the fleets drew towards each other, Nelson summoned his four frigate captains, Dundas included, to his flagship Victory for a final briefing of their roles during the imminent action. He was present as Nelson asked another of the frigate captains, Henry Blackwood of Euryalus, to witness a codicil to his will in which he (in vain) entrusted his mistress Emma, Lady Hamilton to the care of the nation in the event of his death. Dundas was also on board to see Nelson give the order, at about 11.45, for the famous signal “England Expects That Every Man Will Do His Duty”. Shortly before the firing commenced, Dundas left Victory and returned to Naiad carrying final orders and messages to distribute to the captains of the warships. He was, therefore, among the last men to talk with Nelson before the admiral was fatally wounded around 1pm.
During the early part of the action, Naiad, as instructed, lay off to windward with the other frigates to observe the battle and relay messages as required. As the fighting grew fierce, Dundas sent his boats into the water to recover the wounded. However, his most significant and difficult challenge of the day was taking HMS Belleisle in tow. Belleisle had been the second ship into action behind Royal Sovereign in the lee column of Nelson’s attack and as such had faced a terrible early onslaught from the enemy. Belleisle was the only British warship to be completely dismasted during the battle and had also suffered appalling casualties. Having established a line, Dundas hauled away but as the weather worsened in the aftermath of the battle the ships became separated from the British fleet, in danger of capture and of being driven ashore by the gale. Several times the line broke and had to be re-established with great difficulty. On the evening of the 22 October, after colliding with Belleisle endangering both ships, Dundas cut the line leaving both ships, Belleisle on a jury rig, to try and survive the storm on their own. Somehow they succeeded, despite Naiad losing almost all her sheets during the night, and the next morning they re-established contact, and a line, with Dundas then heading straight for Gibraltar (where Victory was also towed after the battle) reaching the safety of the harbour during the afternoon of the 23 October.In 1808 Naiad participated in the blockade of Brest. On 23 May Iris was in company with Naiad when they captured the American packet ship Margaret Tingey.
Between June and August Naiad was in Plymouth making good defects. Then Naiad was in company when Narcissus captured the French schooner Louise on 9 November. On 16 December Naiad was still in company with Narcissus, when they captured two French privateers, Fanny and Superb while on the Home station. Fanny carried 16 guns and a crew of 80 men. She was under the command of Charles Hamon, who as captain of the privateer Venus, had captured numerous British vessels. Fanny was only a few hours out of Nantes on her way to the Irish coast and had made no captures. Then at midnight Naiad and Narcissus captured the French letter of marque sloop Superb. Superb was armed with four guns, had a crew of 20 men, and was sailing to Martinique with a cargo of sundries.
On 7 February 1809 Naiad was in the squadron under the command of Commodore William Hotham and so shared in the proceeds of the capture of the French vessel Prudent. Then on 23 February Naiad was at anchor to the north-west of the Chassiron lighthouse with Defiance, Donegal and Emerald, the squadron now being under the command of Rear Admiral Robert Stopford in Caesar. The next day they saw eight sail-of-the-line and two frigates flying French colours and standing into the Pertuis d'Antioche.
Stopford immediately sent Naiad to warn Admiral Lord Gambier that the French squadron from Brest had arrived but, before she had gone a few miles, Naiad sighted three French frigates heading for Les Sables-d'Olonne and signalled Stopford. Stopford left Amethyst and Emerald to watch the enemy and went in chase of the frigates with the rest of his squadron, now strengthened by the arrival of Amelia and Dotterel. The French anchored under the protection of batteries but the fire from the British ships soon drove them ashore. By 2 March her crew had abandoned one of the French frigates. The other two were afloat at high water but on their beam ends at low water; a westerly swell was expected to destroy them. Stopford returned to blockade the main French force at the Ile d'Aix until 7 March when Gambier arrived to take command.
Pamor is the pattern of white lines appearing on the blade. Kris blades are forged by a technique known as pattern welding, one in which layers of different metals are pounded and fused together while red hot, folded or twisted, adding more different metals, pounded more and folded more until the desired number of layers are obtained. The rough blade is then shaped, filed and sometimes polished smooth before finally acid etched to bring out the contrasting colours of the low and high carbon metals. The traditional Indonesian weapon allegedly endowed with religious and mystical powers. With probably a traditional Meteorite laminated iron blade with hammered nickel for the contrasting pattern. Meteoritic blade form in traditional straight bladed Kris . Hardwood long haft [with age bend]. Embossed brass decorative haft mount.
An historical original document of the Napoleonic Wars. For Admiral Sir J.T.Duckworth, regarding his sending OF three British ships for the assistance of Admiral J.T.Duckworths hoped for victory against the enemy, March 1809. Admiral Sir George Cranfield Berkeley who is regarded by some to have instigated the cause of the War of 1812 With America by ordering the attack of HMS Leopard on the American frigate USS Chesapeake. He was a highly regarded friend of the Duke of Wellington, father-in-law to Nelson's great friend and commander of HMS Victory, Capt. Thomas Masterman Hardy, and encouraged his great friend and physician Edward Jenner to continue his work and research on his smallpox vaccine for the good of naval personnel. This action alone directly connects him to one of the greatest and most successful medical achievements in the history of mankind.
He partook in several battles and wars;
American Revolutionary War
First Battle of Ushant
Great Siege of Gibraltar
Second Battle of Ushant
French Revolutionary Wars
Glorious First of June
Admiral Sir George Cranfield Berkeley GCB (10 August 1753 - 25 February 1818), often known as George Berkeley, was a highly experienced, popular, yet controversial naval officer and politician in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain. Serving on several ships, Cranfield-Berkeley saw action at all three Battles of Ushant, commanded fleets in the West Indies and off Ireland and governed the supply routes to Portugal and Spain which kept Wellington's armies in the field during the Peninsula War. He also enjoyed an extensive political career, reforming military practices in Britain and participating in several prominent scandals including feuds with Charles James Fox and Hugh Palliser.In 1786 Berkeley commanded HMS Magnificent and remained with her for three years until 1789 when he became surveyor-general of the ordnance. He left the post after the French Revolutionary Wars broke out in 1793, taking over HMS Marlborough.
French Revolutionary Wars
Berkeley was still in command of Marlborough when she fought under Lord Howe at the Glorious First of June, fighting as part of Admiral Thomas Pasley's van division there and at the preceding Atlantic campaign of May 1794. At the First of June, Marlborough was dismasted in close combat with several French ships and Berkeley badly wounded in the head and thigh, having to retire below after a period to staunch the bleeding. He had a long convalescence after the action but was amongst the captains selected for the gold medal commemorating the action, only awarded to those felt to have played a significant part in the victory.
Returning to service in 1795, Berkeley commanded HMS Formidable off Brest, Cadiz, Ireland and the Texel, coming ashore in 1798 to command the Sussex sea fencibles. In 1799, Berkeley was promoted rear-admiral and attached to the Channel Fleet, but the gout which had forced his first retirement returned, and Berkeley was forced to take permanent shore leave in 1800. In 1801, Berkeley increased his political interests to compensate for the loss of his naval career.
Berkeley continued building his political status during the Peace of Amiens and by Berkeley had been appointed inspector of sea fencibles, a job he undertook with vigour, conducting a fourteen-month survey of Britain's coastal defences, which greatly improved the island's defences. In 1806. In January 1809 he arrived at Lisbon to assume command of the Portuguese station, his flag flying aboard the Barfleur 98 commanded by his son-in-law, Captain Thomas Masterman Hardy, and with his 22 year-old nephew Maurice Berkeley serving as his flag-lieutenant. In November 1811 Captain John Smith Cowan was placed in acting command of the flagship in succession to Captain Henry Hume Spence. Berkeley enjoyed great success in his support of the army, being lauded by Viscount Wellington for his attention to all aspects of his command, and he also managed to keep the French from taking control of the Spanish fleet at Ferrol
Berkeley left this, his last duty, in May 1812, having been promoted admiral on 31 July 1810 and created Lord High Admiral of the Portuguese Navy.
After a shift in political power, Berkeley fell out of favour somewhat and was dispatched to the North American Station. From there, Berkeley ordered the attack by HMS Leopard on the American frigate USS Chesapeake in retaliation for American recruitment of British deserters. This action, known as the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, helped precipitate the War of 1812
Having embarrassed the British government with this action, Berkeley was recalled home. However, public opinion supported his orders, so Berkeley was moved to command in Lisbon in the hope he could organise the chaotic supply system for Wellington's army in the Peninsula War. Berkeley recognised that only a dedicated and organised convoy system could keep the supply of men, food and material regular and consequently set one up. Simultaneously, he reequipped and galvanised the remnants of the Spanish Navy, rescuing several ships from capture by the French as well as used frigates to supply partisan units all along the coast of Portugal and Northern Spain.
By 1810, Wellington could truthfully say of Berkeley that "His activity is unbounded, the whole range of the business of the Country in which he is stationed, civil, military, political, commercial, even ecclesiastical I believe as well as naval are objects of his attention". He was promoted to full admiral and made Lord High Admiral of the Portuguese Navy by the Portuguese Regent in Brazil. By 1810 he had used sailors to man coastal defences all over Spain, freeing soldiers for Wellington and also formed a squadron of river gunboats to harry French units from major rivers like the Tagus. He and Wellington remained good friends for the rest of their lives, and Wellington later stated that Berkeley was the best naval commander he had ever cooperated with His lifelong friend Edward Jenner [pioneer of the worlds first vaccine] whose vaccine for smallpox Berkeley had persuaded the government to investigate, particularly with regard for the health of the navy. Jenner is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human past or present. The paper bears the watermark and date of Dusautoy & Rump 1806
In wonderful condition for age, just a few very tiny moth holes, all the original regimental buttons are present. The tunic and buttons were tailored by Hobson & Sons of London, and it bears a makers label and an original old storage label. In 1859 the London Scottish Rifle Volunteers were raised, sponsored by the Highland Society and the Caledonian Society of London, and commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Elcho. The soldiers were given a uniform of homespun cloth known as Hodden Grey to avoid inter-clan rivalry and kilts today are still made of this distinctive material.
During the Boer War, the Regiment supplied contingents of Volunteers who served with the Gordon Highlanders and those links survive still. In 1908 the Volunteer Force ceased to exist and became the Territorial Force. The 7th Middlesex (London Scottish) Volunteer Rifle Corps changed its name to the 14th (County of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (London Scottish).
The 1st Battalion was mobilised on 5 August 1914 and was the first Territorial battalion to go into action against the Germans at Messines, near Ypres on 31 October. The Battalion continued to serve in France and Flanders throughout the War taking part in all the major offensives. The 2nd Battalion served in France, the Balkans and Palestine, while a 3rd Battalion was a Reserve Battalion and supplied drafts to the other two. Two Victoria Crosses and nineteen Distinguished Service Orders were awarded to members of the Regiment. We have a very fine and pristine antique London Scottish regimental silver buckle and belt for sale seperately [website catalogue number 20999]. We show in the gallery a picture of a London Scottish soldier in profile wearing his same doublet from the Zulu War period, holding his Martini Henry MK 1/11 Rifle
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